Abstract

Two quartz (10–11) crystals were cylindrically bent to a 25.4cm radius of curvature and were mounted in identical Cauchois-type transmission spectrometers, and the crystal diffraction efficiencies were measured to 5% absolute accuracy using narrow bandwidth x-ray source fluences in the 20  to 80keV energy range. The measured integrated reflectivity values were compared to calculations performed using a computational model that accounts for the diffraction geometry of the bent transmission crystal. These crystal calibrations enable the accurate measurement of absolute hard x-ray emission levels from laser-produced plasmas and other laboratory sources.

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  1. R. D. Deslattes, J. C. Levin, M. D. Walker, and A. Henins, Med. Phys. 21, 123 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. T. Chantler, R. D. Deslattes, A. Henins, and L. T. Hudson, Br. J. Radiol. 69, 636 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. T. Hudson, R. D. Deslattes, A. Henins, C. T. Chantler, E. G. Kessler, and J. E. Schweppe, Med. Phys. 23, 1659 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Cauchois, J. Phys. 3, 320 (1932). English translation is available at http://spectroscopy.nrl.navy.mil/.
  5. J. Seely, L. Hudson, G. Holland, and A. Henins, Appl. Opt. 47, 2767 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Seely, C. Szabo, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, E. Tabakhoff, and L. Hudson, Phys. Plasmas 17, 023102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Lamperti and M. O’Brien, “Calibration of x-ray and gamma-ray measuring instruments,” NIST Special Publication 250 (2001).
  9. Radcal Corporation, 426 West Duarte Road, Monrovia, Calif. 91016.

2010 (1)

J. Seely, C. Szabo, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, E. Tabakhoff, and L. Hudson, Phys. Plasmas 17, 023102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. Seely, L. Hudson, G. Holland, and A. Henins, Appl. Opt. 47, 2767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

C. T. Chantler, R. D. Deslattes, A. Henins, and L. T. Hudson, Br. J. Radiol. 69, 636 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Hudson, R. D. Deslattes, A. Henins, C. T. Chantler, E. G. Kessler, and J. E. Schweppe, Med. Phys. 23, 1659 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. D. Deslattes, J. C. Levin, M. D. Walker, and A. Henins, Med. Phys. 21, 123 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1932 (1)

Y. Cauchois, J. Phys. 3, 320 (1932). English translation is available at http://spectroscopy.nrl.navy.mil/.

Audebert, P.

J. Seely, C. Szabo, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, E. Tabakhoff, and L. Hudson, Phys. Plasmas 17, 023102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brambrink, E.

J. Seely, C. Szabo, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, E. Tabakhoff, and L. Hudson, Phys. Plasmas 17, 023102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cauchois, Y.

Y. Cauchois, J. Phys. 3, 320 (1932). English translation is available at http://spectroscopy.nrl.navy.mil/.

Chantler, C. T.

L. T. Hudson, R. D. Deslattes, A. Henins, C. T. Chantler, E. G. Kessler, and J. E. Schweppe, Med. Phys. 23, 1659 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Chantler, R. D. Deslattes, A. Henins, and L. T. Hudson, Br. J. Radiol. 69, 636 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deslattes, R. D.

C. T. Chantler, R. D. Deslattes, A. Henins, and L. T. Hudson, Br. J. Radiol. 69, 636 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Hudson, R. D. Deslattes, A. Henins, C. T. Chantler, E. G. Kessler, and J. E. Schweppe, Med. Phys. 23, 1659 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Deslattes, J. C. Levin, M. D. Walker, and A. Henins, Med. Phys. 21, 123 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giraldez, E.

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hatchett, S.

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Henins, A.

J. Seely, L. Hudson, G. Holland, and A. Henins, Appl. Opt. 47, 2767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Hudson, R. D. Deslattes, A. Henins, C. T. Chantler, E. G. Kessler, and J. E. Schweppe, Med. Phys. 23, 1659 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Chantler, R. D. Deslattes, A. Henins, and L. T. Hudson, Br. J. Radiol. 69, 636 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Deslattes, J. C. Levin, M. D. Walker, and A. Henins, Med. Phys. 21, 123 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holland, G.

Hudson, L.

J. Seely, C. Szabo, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, E. Tabakhoff, and L. Hudson, Phys. Plasmas 17, 023102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Seely, L. Hudson, G. Holland, and A. Henins, Appl. Opt. 47, 2767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hudson, L. T.

L. T. Hudson, R. D. Deslattes, A. Henins, C. T. Chantler, E. G. Kessler, and J. E. Schweppe, Med. Phys. 23, 1659 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Chantler, R. D. Deslattes, A. Henins, and L. T. Hudson, Br. J. Radiol. 69, 636 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izumi, N.

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, E. G.

L. T. Hudson, R. D. Deslattes, A. Henins, C. T. Chantler, E. G. Kessler, and J. E. Schweppe, Med. Phys. 23, 1659 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Key, M.

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lamperti, P.

P. Lamperti and M. O’Brien, “Calibration of x-ray and gamma-ray measuring instruments,” NIST Special Publication 250 (2001).

Le Pape, S.

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Levin, J. C.

R. D. Deslattes, J. C. Levin, M. D. Walker, and A. Henins, Med. Phys. 21, 123 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacKinnon, A.

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

MacPhee, A.

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maddox, B.

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, M.

P. Lamperti and M. O’Brien, “Calibration of x-ray and gamma-ray measuring instruments,” NIST Special Publication 250 (2001).

Park, H.-S.

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Patel, P.

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, T.

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Remington, B.

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schweppe, J. E.

L. T. Hudson, R. D. Deslattes, A. Henins, C. T. Chantler, E. G. Kessler, and J. E. Schweppe, Med. Phys. 23, 1659 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seely, J.

J. Seely, C. Szabo, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, E. Tabakhoff, and L. Hudson, Phys. Plasmas 17, 023102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Seely, L. Hudson, G. Holland, and A. Henins, Appl. Opt. 47, 2767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szabo, C.

J. Seely, C. Szabo, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, E. Tabakhoff, and L. Hudson, Phys. Plasmas 17, 023102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tabakhoff, E.

J. Seely, C. Szabo, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, E. Tabakhoff, and L. Hudson, Phys. Plasmas 17, 023102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tommasini, R.

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Town, R.

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walker, M. D.

R. D. Deslattes, J. C. Levin, M. D. Walker, and A. Henins, Med. Phys. 21, 123 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Workman, J.

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Br. J. Radiol. (1)

C. T. Chantler, R. D. Deslattes, A. Henins, and L. T. Hudson, Br. J. Radiol. 69, 636 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. (1)

Y. Cauchois, J. Phys. 3, 320 (1932). English translation is available at http://spectroscopy.nrl.navy.mil/.

Med. Phys. (2)

L. T. Hudson, R. D. Deslattes, A. Henins, C. T. Chantler, E. G. Kessler, and J. E. Schweppe, Med. Phys. 23, 1659 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Deslattes, J. C. Levin, M. D. Walker, and A. Henins, Med. Phys. 21, 123 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Plasmas (2)

H.-S. Park, B. Maddox, E. Giraldez, S. Hatchett, L. Hudson, N. Izumi, M. Key, S. Le Pape, A. MacKinnon, A. MacPhee, P. Patel, T. Phillips, B. Remington, J. Seely, R. Tommasini, R. Town, J. Workman, and E. Brambrink, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Seely, C. Szabo, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, E. Tabakhoff, and L. Hudson, Phys. Plasmas 17, 023102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. Lamperti and M. O’Brien, “Calibration of x-ray and gamma-ray measuring instruments,” NIST Special Publication 250 (2001).

Radcal Corporation, 426 West Duarte Road, Monrovia, Calif. 91016.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the geometrical setup of the bent crystal (not to scale).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative photon spectra of the six narrow bandpass fluences.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) and (b) are the spectral images recorded for the source fluences with average energies of 24.7 and 65.3 keV , and (c) and (d) are the average row spectra from the upper portions of the spectral images as functions of energy.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the first-order measured (data points) and calculated (curve) integrated reflectivities for the two crystals in units of 10 5 radians and the ratios of the second and first orders.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ( E ) = C ( E ) θ φ F ( E , R , θ , φ ) ε ( E , R , θ , φ ) d θ d φ ,
S ( E ) = C ( E ) F ( E , R c ) δ ( E ) ( H c / R c ) ,
δ ( E ) = θ ε ( E , R c , θ ) d θ
S o ( E ) = C ( E ) F ( E , R c ) ( W o / R c ) ( H o / R c ) ,
δ ( E ) = ( W o / R c ) ( H o / H c ) S ( E ) / S o ( E ) .
δ = ( p R d / R c 2 ) ( S row / σ o ) / exp ( μ ( R d R c ) ) ,
F ( E , R c ) = S row ( R d / p ) / δ ( E ) C ( E ) ,

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