Abstract

We report a flat spectral Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FS-FADOF) for sodium lidar. The physical and technical considerations for obtaining a FS-FADOF with a 3.5GHz flat spectral transmission function are presented. It was found that the effective transmission of this filter was much higher (>94%) and more uniform than that of the ultranarrowband FADOF, and therefore were less sensitive to laser-frequency drift. Thus, the FS-FADOF can improve lidar efficiency and precision.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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Acott, P. E.

Arnold, K.

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1319 (2003).
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Batista, P.

G. T. Yang, B. Clemesha, P. Batista, and D. Simonich, J. Geophys. Res. 115, D18104 (2010).
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Blum, U.

D. Heinrich, H. Nesse, U. Blum, P. Acott, B. Williams, and U. P. Hoppe, Ann. Geophys. 26, 1057 (2008).
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Chen, H.

Cheng, X. W.

X. W. Cheng, S. S. Gong, F. Q. Li, Y. Dai, J. Song, J. M. Wang, and F. Y. Li, Sci. China Ser. G 50, 287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, X.

X. Chu and G. C. Papen, Laser Remote Sensing, T.Fujii and T.Fukuchi, eds. (CRC Press, 2005), pp. 179–432.
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Clemesha, B.

G. T. Yang, B. Clemesha, P. Batista, and D. Simonich, J. Geophys. Res. 115, D18104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.

X. W. Cheng, S. S. Gong, F. Q. Li, Y. Dai, J. Song, J. M. Wang, and F. Y. Li, Sci. China Ser. G 50, 287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fricke-Begemann, C.

Gong, S. S.

X. W. Cheng, S. S. Gong, F. Q. Li, Y. Dai, J. Song, J. M. Wang, and F. Y. Li, Sci. China Ser. G 50, 287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harrell, S. D.

Heinrich, D.

D. Heinrich, H. Nesse, U. Blum, P. Acott, B. Williams, and U. P. Hoppe, Ann. Geophys. 26, 1057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hoffner, J.

Hoppe, U. P.

D. Heinrich, H. Nesse, U. Blum, P. Acott, B. Williams, and U. P. Hoppe, Ann. Geophys. 26, 1057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawahara, T. D.

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1319 (2003).
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Korevaar, E.

Krueger, D. A.

Li, F. Q.

X. W. Cheng, S. S. Gong, F. Q. Li, Y. Dai, J. Song, J. M. Wang, and F. Y. Li, Sci. China Ser. G 50, 287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, F. Y.

X. W. Cheng, S. S. Gong, F. Q. Li, Y. Dai, J. Song, J. M. Wang, and F. Y. Li, Sci. China Ser. G 50, 287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nesse, H.

D. Heinrich, H. Nesse, U. Blum, P. Acott, B. Williams, and U. P. Hoppe, Ann. Geophys. 26, 1057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Papen, G. C.

X. Chu and G. C. Papen, Laser Remote Sensing, T.Fujii and T.Fukuchi, eds. (CRC Press, 2005), pp. 179–432.
[CrossRef]

Searcy, P.

She, C. Y.

Sherman, J.

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, J. P.

Simonich, D.

G. T. Yang, B. Clemesha, P. Batista, and D. Simonich, J. Geophys. Res. 115, D18104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

X. W. Cheng, S. S. Gong, F. Q. Li, Y. Dai, J. Song, J. M. Wang, and F. Y. Li, Sci. China Ser. G 50, 287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vance, J. D.

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. M.

X. W. Cheng, S. S. Gong, F. Q. Li, Y. Dai, J. Song, J. M. Wang, and F. Y. Li, Sci. China Ser. G 50, 287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

White, M. A.

Williams, B.

D. Heinrich, H. Nesse, U. Blum, P. Acott, B. Williams, and U. P. Hoppe, Ann. Geophys. 26, 1057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. P.

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L. F.

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. T.

G. T. Yang, B. Clemesha, P. Batista, and D. Simonich, J. Geophys. Res. 115, D18104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, T.

T. Yuan, J. Yue, C. Y. She, J. P. Sherman, M. A. White, S. D. Harrell, P. E. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, Appl. Opt. 48, 3988 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yue, J.

Ann. Geophys.

D. Heinrich, H. Nesse, U. Blum, P. Acott, B. Williams, and U. P. Hoppe, Ann. Geophys. 26, 1057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Geophys. Res. Lett.

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

G. T. Yang, B. Clemesha, P. Batista, and D. Simonich, J. Geophys. Res. 115, D18104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Sci. China Ser. G

X. W. Cheng, S. S. Gong, F. Q. Li, Y. Dai, J. Song, J. M. Wang, and F. Y. Li, Sci. China Ser. G 50, 287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

X. Chu and G. C. Papen, Laser Remote Sensing, T.Fujii and T.Fukuchi, eds. (CRC Press, 2005), pp. 179–432.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Longitudinal coordinates are in arbitrary units. (a)–(c) Solid curves represent the sodium fluorescence echo spectrum with ν i = ν + , ν , ν a . (d) Theoretical and experimental results of the FS-FADOF and the UN-FADOF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Sodium number density. (b)  r ν i varies with laser frequency ν i .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calibration curves for (a) line-of-sight wind velocity and (b) temperature.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Effective FADOF Transmission, Where υ = 0 , T = 250 K for T ν i Ray ( T , υ ) and T = 200 K for T ν i N a ( T , υ )

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T ν i S ( T , υ ) = I ν i S ( ν e , T , υ ) F ( ν e ) d ν e I ν i S ( ν e , T , υ ) d ν e ,
n N a ( z ) = N n ( z ) n Ray ( z R ) σ ν i Ray ( T , υ ) σ ν i N a ( T , υ ) 1 r ν i .
R T = σ ν + N a ( T , υ ) r ν + + σ ν N a ( T , υ ) r ν σ ν a N a ( T , υ ) r ν a .
R W = σ ν + N a ( T , υ ) σ ν N a ( T , υ ) r ν + r ν .
I ν i N a ( ν e , T , υ ) = i = 1 8 j = 1 16 k = 1 8 S β j γ k f ( υ s ) υ s c + ν β j γ k ν e i 4 π τ S α i β j P ν i ( ν ) υ s c + ν α i β j ν i 4 π τ d ν d υ s ,

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