Abstract

We report on the efficient surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (spaser) from a gold nanorod coated with proper gain media. Numerical simulations show that the threshold of the nanorod- based spaser is nearly 1 order of magnitude lower than that of the core-shell nanosphere, which is verified by analysis with electrostatic theory. Furthermore, it is found that the nanorod-based nanosystem possesses unique optical properties such as wavelength tunability and polarization sensitivity.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (7)

Z. J. Yang, N. C. Kim, J. B. Li, M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, Z. H. Hao, and Q. Q. Wang, Opt. Express 18, 4006 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Li and Y. Xia, Nano Lett. 10, 243 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. K. Liu, Y. X. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. L. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, Nano Lett. 10, 1347 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, S. Liu, Y. Liu, F. Zhou, and Z. Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 263103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, J. Opt. 12, 024004 (2010).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. F. Li and S. F. Yu, Opt. Lett. 35, 2535 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

C. Ungureanu, R. G. Rayavarapu, S. Manohhar, and T. G. Van Leeuwen, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102032 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ming, L. Zhao, Z. Yang, H. J. Chen, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, Nano Lett. 9, 3896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, Nature 459, 410(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. Xia, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 20233 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, Nat. Photon. 2, 351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

O. Popov, A. Zilbershtein, and D. Davidov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. P. Juste, I. P. Santos, L. M. L. Marzán, and P. Mulvaney, Coord. Chem. Rev. 249, 1870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

K. S. Tapan and C. J. Murphy, Langmuir 20, 6414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5040 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

Bakker, R.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belgrave, A. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. J.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, Z. Yang, H. J. Chen, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, Nano Lett. 9, 3896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, M. T.

Chon, J. W. M.

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, Nature 459, 410(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, Y. X.

Q. K. Liu, Y. X. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. L. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, Nano Lett. 10, 1347 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidov, D.

O. Popov, A. Zilbershtein, and D. Davidov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Draine, B. T.

Fedotov, V. A.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, Nat. Photon. 2, 351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flatau, P. J.

Franzl, T.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardner, D.

Q. K. Liu, Y. X. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. L. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, Nano Lett. 10, 1347 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, J. A.

Gu, M.

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, Nature 459, 410(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, Z. H.

He, S. L.

Q. K. Liu, Y. X. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. L. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, Nano Lett. 10, 1347 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herz, E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1998).
[CrossRef]

Juste, J. P.

J. P. Juste, I. P. Santos, L. M. L. Marzán, and P. Mulvaney, Coord. Chem. Rev. 249, 1870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N. C.

Lawandy, N. M.

N. M. Lawandy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5040 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, S. Liu, Y. Liu, F. Zhou, and Z. Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 263103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. B.

Li, X.

Q. K. Liu, Y. X. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. L. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, Nano Lett. 10, 1347 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. F.

Li, Z. Y.

J. Li, S. Liu, Y. Liu, F. Zhou, and Z. Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 263103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li and Y. Xia, Nano Lett. 10, 243 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. Xia, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 20233 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q. K.

Q. K. Liu, Y. X. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. L. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, Nano Lett. 10, 1347 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

J. Li, S. Liu, Y. Liu, F. Zhou, and Z. Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 263103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. D.

Liu, Y.

J. Li, S. Liu, Y. Liu, F. Zhou, and Z. Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 263103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. Xia, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 20233 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R. M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manohhar, S.

C. Ungureanu, R. G. Rayavarapu, S. Manohhar, and T. G. Van Leeuwen, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102032 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marzán, L. M. L.

J. P. Juste, I. P. Santos, L. M. L. Marzán, and P. Mulvaney, Coord. Chem. Rev. 249, 1870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ming, T.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, Z. Yang, H. J. Chen, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, Nano Lett. 9, 3896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mulvaney, P.

J. P. Juste, I. P. Santos, L. M. L. Marzán, and P. Mulvaney, Coord. Chem. Rev. 249, 1870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, C. J.

K. S. Tapan and C. J. Murphy, Langmuir 20, 6414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E. E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papasimakis, N.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, Nat. Photon. 2, 351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Popov, O.

O. Popov, A. Zilbershtein, and D. Davidov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, Nat. Photon. 2, 351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rayavarapu, R. G.

C. Ungureanu, R. G. Rayavarapu, S. Manohhar, and T. G. Van Leeuwen, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102032 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Santos, I. P.

J. P. Juste, I. P. Santos, L. M. L. Marzán, and P. Mulvaney, Coord. Chem. Rev. 249, 1870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smalyukh, I. I.

Q. K. Liu, Y. X. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. L. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, Nano Lett. 10, 1347 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sönnichsen, C.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, J. Opt. 12, 024004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stout, S.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, L. D.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, Z. Yang, H. J. Chen, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, Nano Lett. 9, 3896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suteewong, T.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tapan, K. S.

K. S. Tapan and C. J. Murphy, Langmuir 20, 6414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ungureanu, C.

C. Ungureanu, R. G. Rayavarapu, S. Manohhar, and T. G. Van Leeuwen, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102032 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Leeuwen, T. G.

C. Ungureanu, R. G. Rayavarapu, S. Manohhar, and T. G. Van Leeuwen, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102032 (2009).
[CrossRef]

von Plessen, G.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. F.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, Z. Yang, H. J. Chen, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, Nano Lett. 9, 3896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q. Q.

Werner, D. H.

Wiesner, U.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilk, T.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, O.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

Xia, Y.

Z. Y. Li and Y. Xia, Nano Lett. 10, 243 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. Xia, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 20233 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, C. H.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, Z. Yang, H. J. Chen, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, Nano Lett. 9, 3896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, Z. Yang, H. J. Chen, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, Nano Lett. 9, 3896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Z. J.

Yu, S. F.

Zeng, Y.

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, L.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, Z. Yang, H. J. Chen, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, Nano Lett. 9, 3896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, Nat. Photon. 2, 351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, F.

J. Li, S. Liu, Y. Liu, F. Zhou, and Z. Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 263103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. Xia, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 20233 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zijlstra, P.

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, Nature 459, 410(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zilbershtein, A.

O. Popov, A. Zilbershtein, and D. Davidov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ziolkowski, R. W.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

O. Popov, A. Zilbershtein, and D. Davidov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, S. Liu, Y. Liu, F. Zhou, and Z. Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 263103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5040 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Coord. Chem. Rev. (1)

J. P. Juste, I. P. Santos, L. M. L. Marzán, and P. Mulvaney, Coord. Chem. Rev. 249, 1870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Ungureanu, R. G. Rayavarapu, S. Manohhar, and T. G. Van Leeuwen, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102032 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

M. I. Stockman, J. Opt. 12, 024004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. Xia, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 20233 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

K. S. Tapan and C. J. Murphy, Langmuir 20, 6414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

T. Ming, L. Zhao, Z. Yang, H. J. Chen, L. D. Sun, J. F. Wang, and C. H. Yan, Nano Lett. 9, 3896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Li and Y. Xia, Nano Lett. 10, 243 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. K. Liu, Y. X. Cui, D. Gardner, X. Li, S. L. He, and I. I. Smalyukh, Nano Lett. 10, 1347 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (1)

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, Nat. Photon. 2, 351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, Nature 459, 410(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the GNR-based active nanosystem (detailed geometric parameters are shown in the picture). (b) Calculated optical cross-section spectra for the nanosystem shown in Fig. 1a with different gain coefficients (k) as noted. (c) Calculated absorption cross section at the SPR wavelength as a function of k.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram of the core-shell nanosystem based on a GNS (detailed geometric parameters are depicted in the picture). (b) Calculated absorption cross section at the SPR wavelength as a function of k.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized C scat at the SPR wavelength from the electrostatic theory as a function of k for the GNS-based (thin line) and GNR-based (thick line) nanosystems. Right side, geometry parameters of the two nanosystems in calculations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated absorption cross-section spectra ( C abs ) of the GNR-based nanosystem. (a) Wavelength-tunable spaser is achieved by varying the aspect ratio of the embedded GNR as noted. (b) By changing the excitation polarization angle with respect to the long-axis of the GNR, i.e., from 0 ° to 45 ° and 90 ° , the peak value of C abs changes dramatically from 609 to 303 and 0.0001 μm 2 , respectively.

Equations (2)

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α = v ( ( ε 2 ε m ) [ ε 2 + ( ε 1 ε 2 ) ( L 3 ( 1 ) f L 3 ( 2 ) ) ] + f ε 2 ( ε 1 ε 2 ) ) [ ε 2 + ( ε 1 ε 2 ) ( L 3 ( 1 ) f L 3 ( 2 ) ) ] [ ε m + ( ε 2 ε m ) L 3 ( 2 ) ] + f L 3 ( 2 ) ε 2 ( ε 1 ε 2 ) ,
C scat 8 π 3 3 λ 4 | α | 2 .

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