Abstract

We demonstrate the advantages of using a single-crystal sapphire fiber to perform Raman spectroscopy over using a standard glass fiber. The narrow Raman peaks and the low background signal of a single-crystal sapphire fiber allow for the detection of weaker Raman signals or Raman signals much closer to the incident laser wavelength than with a standard glass fiber, which has a strong broadband Raman spectrum of its own. The Raman spectra of calcite, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and aqueous sodium carbonate solution were collected using a 50cm long, 200μm diameter sapphire fiber, and then they were compared with the results using a 50cm long, 100μm diameter glass fiber. The Raman spectrum of each tested material becomes indistinguishable due to the background Raman signal of the glass fiber but can easily be seen using the sapphire fiber, which has only a few narrow Raman peaks of its own.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2009

2006

2005

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenovic, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, Anal. Chem. 77, 6747 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Appl. Opt. 43, 542(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Keszler, L. Nemes, S. R. Ahmad, and X. Fang, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 1269 (2004).

I. Martinez, C. Sanchez-Valle, I. Daniel, and B. Reynard, Chem. Geol. 207, 47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Dassios and C. Galiotis, Appl. Phys. A 79, 647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

D. M. Carey and G. M. Korenowski, J. Chem Phys. 108, 2669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

1981

G. H. Watson Jr., W. B. Daniels, and C. S. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 956 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

H. E. LaBelle, Jr., J. Cryst. Growth 50, 8 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Addison, C. J.

Ahmad, S. R.

A. M. Keszler, L. Nemes, S. R. Ahmad, and X. Fang, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 1269 (2004).

Almeida, R. M.

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenovic, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, Anal. Chem. 77, 6747 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basiev, T. T.

Blades, M. W.

Carey, D. M.

D. M. Carey and G. M. Korenowski, J. Chem Phys. 108, 2669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Daniel, I.

I. Martinez, C. Sanchez-Valle, I. Daniel, and B. Reynard, Chem. Geol. 207, 47 (2004).
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Daniels, W. B.

G. H. Watson Jr., W. B. Daniels, and C. S. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 956 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

Dassios, K. G.

K. G. Dassios and C. Galiotis, Appl. Phys. A 79, 647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Du, H.

Fang, X.

A. M. Keszler, L. Nemes, S. R. Ahmad, and X. Fang, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 1269 (2004).

Feld, M. S.

Galindo, L. H.

Galiotis, C.

K. G. Dassios and C. Galiotis, Appl. Phys. A 79, 647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gardecki, J. A.

Griffiths, P. R.

Han, Y.

Harrington, J. A.

Hunter, M.

Jiang, L.

Keszler, A. M.

A. M. Keszler, L. Nemes, S. R. Ahmad, and X. Fang, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 1269 (2004).

Koljenovic, S.

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenovic, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, Anal. Chem. 77, 6747 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konorov, S. O.

Korenowski, G. M.

D. M. Carey and G. M. Korenowski, J. Chem Phys. 108, 2669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, J. R.

LaBelle, H. E.

H. E. LaBelle, Jr., J. Cryst. Growth 50, 8 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lan, X.

Lewis, I. R.

Martinez, I.

I. Martinez, C. Sanchez-Valle, I. Daniel, and B. Reynard, Chem. Geol. 207, 47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McCreery, R. L.

R. L. McCreery, Raman Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (Wiley, 2000).
[CrossRef]

Motz, J. T.

Nemes, L.

A. M. Keszler, L. Nemes, S. R. Ahmad, and X. Fang, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 1269 (2004).

Nubling, R. K.

Osiko, V. V.

Powell, R. C.

Pristinski, D.

Puppels, G. J.

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenovic, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, Anal. Chem. 77, 6747 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynard, B.

I. Martinez, C. Sanchez-Valle, I. Daniel, and B. Reynard, Chem. Geol. 207, 47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rothrock, L.

L. Rothrock, Photran, LLC, Poway, California 92064 (personal communication, 2010).

Sanchez-Valle, C.

I. Martinez, C. Sanchez-Valle, I. Daniel, and B. Reynard, Chem. Geol. 207, 47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Santos, L. F.

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenovic, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, Anal. Chem. 77, 6747 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulze, H. G.

Sobol, A. A.

Tsai, H.

Turner, R. F. B.

Wang, C. S.

G. H. Watson Jr., W. B. Daniels, and C. S. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 956 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Watson, G. H.

G. H. Watson Jr., W. B. Daniels, and C. S. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 956 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

Wolthuis, R.

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenovic, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, Anal. Chem. 77, 6747 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, H.

Zhang, Y.

Zverev, P. G.

Anal. Chem.

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenovic, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, Anal. Chem. 77, 6747 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

K. G. Dassios and C. Galiotis, Appl. Phys. A 79, 647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Chem. Geol.

I. Martinez, C. Sanchez-Valle, I. Daniel, and B. Reynard, Chem. Geol. 207, 47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. H. Watson Jr., W. B. Daniels, and C. S. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 956 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem Phys.

D. M. Carey and G. M. Korenowski, J. Chem Phys. 108, 2669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

H. E. LaBelle, Jr., J. Cryst. Growth 50, 8 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.

A. M. Keszler, L. Nemes, S. R. Ahmad, and X. Fang, J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 1269 (2004).

Opt. Lett.

Other

R. L. McCreery, Raman Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (Wiley, 2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Rothrock, Photran, LLC, Poway, California 92064 (personal communication, 2010).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup for Raman spectroscopy.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman spectra of each fiber in air with no sample: (a) silica fiber and (b) sapphire fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman spectra of calcite: (a) silica fiber (offset added for diagram clarity), (b) single-crystal sapphire fiber, and (c) calcite Raman peak at 1088 cm 1 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raman spectra of SWNTs: (a) silica fiber, (b) single-crystal sapphire fiber, and (c) SWNT Raman peak at 1590 cm 1 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Raman spectra of a solution of 2.6 M Na 2 CO 3 in water: (a) silica fiber (offset added for diagram clarity), (b) single-crystal sapphire fiber, and (c)  Na 2 CO 3 Raman peak at 1054 cm 1 .

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