Abstract

We report the first demonstration of cw wavelength conversion from the telecommunications band to the mid-IR (MIR) region via four-wave mixing in silicon nanowaveguides. We measure a parametric bandwidth of 748nm by converting a 1636nm signal to produce a 2384nm idler and show continuously tunable wavelength conversion from 1792 to 2116nm. This report indicates that the advantages of silicon photonics may be leveraged to create devices for a large range of MIR applications that require cw operation.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010 (3)

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 18, 1904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photon. 4, 557 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. Chavez-Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photon. 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (4)

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, Opt. Express 15, 16604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nat. Photon. 2, 35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Raghunathan, D. Borlaug, R. Rice, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 15, 14355 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, J. Opt. A 8, 840 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, Opt. Express 14, 11721 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

Agrawal, G. P.

Alic, N.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. Chavez-Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photon. 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Borlaug, D.

Bristow, A. D.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buchwald, W. R.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, J. Opt. A 8, 840 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chavez-Boggio, J. M.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. Chavez-Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photon. 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Claps, R.

Cohen, O.

Dadap, J. I.

Dai, Y.

Dimitropoulos, D.

Divliansky, I. B.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. Chavez-Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photon. 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Emelett, S. J.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, J. Opt. A 8, 840 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Espinola, R. L.

Foster, M. A.

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 18, 1904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 16, 1300 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nat. Photon. 2, 35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuda, H.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Geraghty, D. F.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nat. Photon. 2, 35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photon. 4, 557 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Kuo, Y.-H.

Labadie, L.

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photon. 4, 557 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Mookherjea, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. Chavez-Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photon. 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moro, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. Chavez-Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photon. 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okawachi, Y.

Osgood, R. M.

Painter, O. J.

Panepucci, R.

Paniccia, M.

Park, J. S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. Chavez-Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photon. 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. Chavez-Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photon. 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raghunathan, V.

Rice, R.

Rong, H.

Rotenberg, N.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salem, R.

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 18, 1904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nat. Photon. 2, 35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoji, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sih, V.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, J. Opt. A 8, 840 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. C.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 16, 1300 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nat. Photon. 2, 35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

van Driel, H. M.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wallner, O.

Watanabe, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Xu, S.

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zlatanovic, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. Chavez-Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photon. 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, J. Opt. A 8, 840 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (3)

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. Chavez-Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photon. 4, 561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, Nat. Photon. 4, 557 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nat. Photon. 2, 35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (10)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated GVD curves for the TE mode of nanowaveguides with widths ranging from 940 to 970 nm and a fixed height of 280 nm . The inset shows that a nanowaveguide 950 nm wide will have a zero-GVD wavelength near 1950 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical (curves) and measured (dots) conversion efficiencies as functions of idler wavelength for nanowaveguides of varying widths. The heights and lengths are 280 nm and 1 cm , respectively. The cw pump is fixed at 1950 nm , and the signal is tuned from 1790 to 1930 nm . The measured peak conversion efficiency is approximately - 30 dB .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical (curve) and measured (dots) conversion efficiencies as functions of idler wavelength for a 940 nm × 280 nm × 1 cm nanowaveguide pumped at 1940 nm . The measured 3 dB conversion bandwidth is 324 nm , from 1792 to 2116 nm . The theoretical 3 dB conversion bandwidth is 936 nm , from 1579 to 2515 nm . The inset shows the measured FWM spectra.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured FWM spectra showing broadband wavelength conversion across 748 nm . The signal, pump, and idler wavelengths are 1636, 1940, and 2384 nm , respectively.

Equations (4)

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d A P d z = 1 2 [ α lin P + β TPA I P + α FCA P I P 2 ] A P + i γ | A P | 2 A P ,
d A S d z = 1 2 [ α lin S + 2 β TPA I P + α FCA S I P 2 ] A S + 2 i γ | A P | 2 A S + γ A P 2 A I * exp ( i Δ k z ) ,
d A I d z = 1 2 [ α lin I + 2 β TPA I P + α FCA I I P 2 ] A I + 2 i γ | A P | 2 A I + γ A P 2 A S * exp ( i Δ k z ) ,
α FCA = 1.45 × 10 21 [ m 2 ] ( λ P 1.55 × 10 6 [ m ] ) 2 ( β TPA τ eff λ P 2 h c ) ,

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