Abstract

We show a planar optical circuit design that takes light from an input waveguide and creates a focused azimuthally or radially polarized beam emanating from the surface of the substrate. It is implemented in silicon-on-insulator waveguides and does not require any external components to focus the beam. The focal spot size can be subwavelength and is potentially useful for lithography, imaging, optical data storage, optical trapping, optical excitation of molecules, or coupling to optical fibers.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

2008 (1)

C. R. Doerr, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1440 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. N. Gupta, N. Kant, D. E. Kim, and H. Suk, Phys. Lett. A 368, 402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, Nature 441, 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901-1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. R. Zurita-Sanchez and L. Novotny, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2722 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 289, 415 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1990 (1)

1972 (1)

Y. Mushiake, K. Matsumura, and N. Nakajima, Proc. IEEE 60, 1107 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

H. Kogelnik and T. Li, Proc. IEEE 54, 1312 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ait-Ameur, K.

Chutinan, A.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curtis, J. E.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Denis, R. de S.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1440 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901-1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dragone, C.

Fan, S.

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 289, 415 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fink, Y.

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 289, 415 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grier, D. G.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, D. N.

D. N. Gupta, N. Kant, D. E. Kim, and H. Suk, Phys. Lett. A 368, 402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

Hierle, R.

Ibanescu, M.

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 289, 415 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imada, M.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 289, 415 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jordan, R. H.

Kant, N.

D. N. Gupta, N. Kant, D. E. Kim, and H. Suk, Phys. Lett. A 368, 402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. E.

D. N. Gupta, N. Kant, D. E. Kim, and H. Suk, Phys. Lett. A 368, 402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

King, O.

Kitamura, K.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and T. Li, Proc. IEEE 54, 1312 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Koss, B. A.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kunishi, W.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, Nature 441, 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901-1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

H. Kogelnik and T. Li, Proc. IEEE 54, 1312 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Loudon, R.

R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford University, 1973), Chap. 8.

Matsumura, K.

Y. Mushiake, K. Matsumura, and N. Nakajima, Proc. IEEE 60, 1107 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Miyai, E.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, Nature 441, 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mochizuki, M.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mushiake, Y.

Y. Mushiake, K. Matsumura, and N. Nakajima, Proc. IEEE 60, 1107 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, N.

Y. Mushiake, K. Matsumura, and N. Nakajima, Proc. IEEE 60, 1107 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

K. Kitamura, K. Sakai, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 18, 4518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, Nature 441, 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

Ohnishi, D.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, Nature 441, 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okano, T.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, Nature 441, 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Passilly, N.

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901-1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rishton, S.

Roch, J.-F.

Sakai, K.

K. Kitamura, K. Sakai, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 18, 4518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, Nature 441, 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suk, H.

D. N. Gupta, N. Kant, D. E. Kim, and H. Suk, Phys. Lett. A 368, 402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, E. L.

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 289, 415 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treussart, F.

Wicks, G.

Yokoyama, M.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zurita-Sanchez, J. R.

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

C. R. Doerr, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1440 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (1)

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, Nature 441, 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

D. N. Gupta, N. Kant, D. E. Kim, and H. Suk, Phys. Lett. A 368, 402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901-1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (2)

H. Kogelnik and T. Li, Proc. IEEE 54, 1312 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mushiake, K. Matsumura, and N. Nakajima, Proc. IEEE 60, 1107 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 289, 415 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford University, 1973), Chap. 8.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photograph of the chip. SEM images of (b) the waveguide inlets to the grating coupler and (c) the grating coupler itself. The chip shown is the azimuthal version; the radial version is slightly larger.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Waveguide layout of the center region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical power from the azimuthally polarized design. (a)–(c) are imaged in the PIC plane; (d)–(f) are imaged above the PIC, at the beam focus. (a), (d) No polarizer; (b), (e) polarizer at 45 ° ; (c), (f) polarizer at + 45 ° .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical power from the radially polarized design. (a)–(c) are imaged slightly above the PIC plane; (d)–(f) are imaged well above the PIC, at the beam focus. (a), (d) No polarizer; (b), (e) polarizer at 45 ° ; (c), (f) polarizer at + 45 ° .

Equations (2)

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r n w + r 2 + f 2 n o = ( 1 2 m ) λ 2 + n o ( λ 4 n w ) 2 + f 2 ,
r 2 ( n o 2 n w 2 ) 2 r n w [ ( 1 2 m ) λ 2 + n o ( λ 4 n w ) 2 + f 2 ] + f 2 n o 2 [ ( 1 2 m ) λ 2 + n o ( λ 4 n w ) 2 + f 2 ] 2 = 0

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