Abstract

We developed second-generation (G2) optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM). Incorporation of a novel acoustic detection scheme improved upon the sensitivity of our first-generation (G1) system by 18.4dB, deepening the in vivo tissue penetration to 1.2mm at 570nm. Moreover, translating the imaging head instead of the living object accelerated the scanning speed by a factor of 5, widening the field of view within the same acquisition time. Mouse ears, as well as mouse brains with intact craniums, were imaged in vivo in both total concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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2010

2009

2008

Arbeit, J. M.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. Santeford, J. Yao, J. R. Kovalski, R. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, BloodDOI: 10.1182/blood-2010-09-307538 (to be published).

Brekhovskikh, L. M.

L. M. Brekhovskikh, Waves in Layered Media (Academic, 1980).

Fawzi, A.

Hu, J. M.

Hu, S.

Jiang, M. S.

Jiao, S. L.

Kinsler, L. E.

L. E. Kinsler, Fundamentals of Acoustics (Wiley, 2000).

Kovalski, J. R.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. Santeford, J. Yao, J. R. Kovalski, R. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, BloodDOI: 10.1182/blood-2010-09-307538 (to be published).

Lee, J.-M.

Maslov, K.

Oladipupo, S.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. Santeford, J. Yao, J. R. Kovalski, R. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, BloodDOI: 10.1182/blood-2010-09-307538 (to be published).

Puliafito, C. A.

Rao, B.

Santeford, A.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. Santeford, J. Yao, J. R. Kovalski, R. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, BloodDOI: 10.1182/blood-2010-09-307538 (to be published).

Shohet, R.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. Santeford, J. Yao, J. R. Kovalski, R. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, BloodDOI: 10.1182/blood-2010-09-307538 (to be published).

Shung, K. K.

Wang, L. V.

Yan, P.

Yao, J.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. Santeford, J. Yao, J. R. Kovalski, R. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, BloodDOI: 10.1182/blood-2010-09-307538 (to be published).

Zhang, H. F.

Zhou, Q. F.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of G2 OR-PAM. The solid-boundary inset shows the configuration of the acoustic-optical combiner in G1 OR-PAM. ConL, condenser lens; ND, neutral density; FC, fiber collimator; SMF, single-mode fiber; CCD, charge-coupled device; BS, beam splitter; PD, photodiode; CorL, correction lens; RAP, right-angle prism; SO, silicone oil; RhP, rhomboid prism; US, ultrasonic transducer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sensitivity comparison. The same carbon fiber is imaged by (A) G1 and (B) G2 OR-PAM at the same laser fluence level. (C) Photoacoustic signal profiles of the representative carbon fiber cross sections indicated in panels A and B (black dashed lines). PA, photoacoustic.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatial resolution and in vivo tissue penetration of G2 OR-PAM. (A) OR-PAM image of an Air Force resolution test target. (B) The cross-sectional profile of the six elements in group 7 of the resolution target, as indicated by the red dashed line in (A). (C) OR-PAM image of a black needle inserted obliquely in a living mouse leg. PA, photoacoustic.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OR-PAM of relative HbT in a living mouse ear, revealing the vascular anatomy. Insert shows a densely packed capillary bed and individual red blood cells traveling along a capillary.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dual-wavelength ( 561 nm and 570 nm ) OR-PAM of sO 2 in a living mouse ear.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transcranial OR-PAM of a living adult mouse brain. (A) Depth-encoded maximum-amplitude- projection (MAP) image of both methylene blue-perfused skull vasculature and blood-perfused cortical vasculature at 570 nm . (B) MAP image of methylene blue-perfused skull vasculature at 650 nm . PA, photoacoustic.

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