Abstract

An optical phase modulator is presented by using micro-electro-mechanical systems to actuate deformable silicon waveguides. Via mechanically stretching the waveguide length, the optical path is extended, resulting in a phase shift. The experimental results show that a phase shift of near 0.4π is achieved at 200V for both TE- and TM-polarized waves by cascading six phase modulation units, agreeing well with the theoretical prediction. The power consumption is estimated to be smaller than 0.2mW at 200V, mainly resulting from the leakage current.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Chiu, W. C.

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[CrossRef]

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Fathpour, S.

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Greywall, D.

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[CrossRef]

Hane, K.

Ikeda, T.

Jalali, B.

Janz, S.

Jeng-Tzong, C.

C. Shiang-Woei, L. Yunn-Shiuan, and C. Jeng-Tzong, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14, 305 (2005).
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Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
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Kanamori, Y.

Lamontagne, B.

Lee, M. C. M.

M. C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, Opt. Lett. 31, 2444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Chang, W. C. Chiu, J. M. Wu, M. C. M. Lee, and J. M. Shieh, in 2010 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OPT MEMS), (IEEE, 2010), pp. 99–100.
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolaescu, R.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

R. Won and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photon. 4, 498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Picard, M. J.

Rendina, I.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiang-Woei, C.

C. Shiang-Woei, L. Yunn-Shiuan, and C. Jeng-Tzong, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14, 305 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, J. M.

C. C. Chang, W. C. Chiu, J. M. Wu, M. C. M. Lee, and J. M. Shieh, in 2010 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OPT MEMS), (IEEE, 2010), pp. 99–100.
[CrossRef]

Simon, M. E.

D. T. Fuchs, H. B. Chan, H. R. Stuart, F. Baumann, D. Greywall, M. E. Simon, and A. Wong-Foy, Electron. Lett. 40, 142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, H. R.

D. T. Fuchs, H. B. Chan, H. R. Stuart, F. Baumann, D. Greywall, M. E. Simon, and A. Wong-Foy, Electron. Lett. 40, 142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

Tarr, N. G.

Won, R.

R. Won and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photon. 4, 498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wong-Foy, A.

D. T. Fuchs, H. B. Chan, H. R. Stuart, F. Baumann, D. Greywall, M. E. Simon, and A. Wong-Foy, Electron. Lett. 40, 142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. M.

C. C. Chang, W. C. Chiu, J. M. Wu, M. C. M. Lee, and J. M. Shieh, in 2010 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OPT MEMS), (IEEE, 2010), pp. 99–100.
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

Xu, D. X.

Yao, J.

Ye, W. N.

Yunn-Shiuan, L.

C. Shiang-Woei, L. Yunn-Shiuan, and C. Jeng-Tzong, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14, 305 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Fuchs, H. B. Chan, H. R. Stuart, F. Baumann, D. Greywall, M. E. Simon, and A. Wong-Foy, Electron. Lett. 40, 142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

C. Shiang-Woei, L. Yunn-Shiuan, and C. Jeng-Tzong, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14, 305 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

R. Won and M. Paniccia, Nat. Photon. 4, 498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

C. C. Chang, W. C. Chiu, J. M. Wu, M. C. M. Lee, and J. M. Shieh, in 2010 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OPT MEMS), (IEEE, 2010), pp. 99–100.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a MEMS-actuated phase modulation unit consisting of a deformable waveguide and an electrode, (b) top-view micrograph of a fabricated phase modulation unit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated waveguide deformation at different bias voltages, (b) calculated waveguide extension and the corresponding phase shift as functions of bias voltage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of a MEMS-actuated MZI.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results on phase modulation. (a) Measured phase shifts as functions of bias voltages for the TE- and TM-polarized waves, (b) measured phase shifts at the wavelengths of 1540 and 1555 nm for the TM-polarized wave. The theoretical curves (dashed line) are calculated by the finite element method.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured dynamic response of the modulated optical signal, (b) simulated frequency response of a 150 - μm -long suspended silicon waveguide.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Material Parameters of Silicon

Equations (3)

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Δ n x = n x n 0 = C 1 σ x C 2 ( σ y + σ z ) , Δ n y = n y n 0 = C 1 σ y C 2 ( σ x + σ z ) , Δ n z = n z n 0 = C 1 σ z C 2 ( σ x + σ y ) ,
C 1 = n 0 3 2 E ( p 11 2 ν p 12 ) , C 2 = n 0 3 2 E ( ν p 11 + ( ν 1 ) p 12 ) .
ϕ s = cos 1 [ ( 1 + r ) ( 1 R ) + 2 r 2 R r ] and R = P 0 P out ,

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