Abstract

Flow cytometers are widely applied to environmental monitoring, industrial testing, and biochemical studies. Integrating a flow cytometer into microfluidic networks helps to miniaturize the system and make it portable for field use. The integration of optical components, such as lenses, further improves the compactness and thus has been intensively studied recently. However, the current designs suffer from severe light scattering due to the roughness of the solid-based lens interface. In this Letter, we propose a flow cytometer using an optofluidic lens to focus the light beam. Benefiting from the smooth liquid–liquid lens interface and the refractive-index matching liquid as cladding streams, a light beam can be well focused without scattering. The variations of the signal peak values are reduced, owing to the small beam width at the beam waist. The device presents an efficient and accurate performance on both the counting and sizing of particles.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Marie, F. Partensky, S. Jacquet, and D. Vaulot, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 186 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  2. J. L. Garcia-Cordero, L. M. Barrett, R. O’Kennedy, and A. J. Ricco, Biomed. Microdevices 12, 1051 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Alt, I. Veilleux, H. Lee, C. M. Pitsillides, D. Cote, and C. P. Lin, Opt. Lett. 32, 3450 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. C. Tung, M. Zhang, C. T. Lin, K. Kurabayashi, and S. J. Skerlos, Sens. Actuators 98, 356 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Pamme, R. Koyama, and A. Manz, Lab Chip 3, 187 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Wang, J. El-Ali, M. Engelund, T. Gotsæt, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, J. P. Kutter, and A. Wolff, Lab Chip 4, 372 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Godin, V. Lien, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Barat, G. Benazzi, M. C. Mowlem, J. M. Ruano, and H. Morgan, Opt. Commun. 283, 1987 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. K. Y. Tang, C. A. Stan, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 8, 395 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. L. Song, N. T. Nguyen, A. K. Asundi, and C. L. N. Low, Opt. Lett. 34, 3622 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, S. H. Tan, and A. K. Asundi, Lab Chip 9, 1178 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, S. H. Tan, and A. K. Asundi, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 9, 889 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, Y. F. Yap, T. D. Luong, and A. K. Asundi, Microfluid. Nanofluid. (to be published).

2010 (3)

J. L. Garcia-Cordero, L. M. Barrett, R. O’Kennedy, and A. J. Ricco, Biomed. Microdevices 12, 1051 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Barat, G. Benazzi, M. C. Mowlem, J. M. Ruano, and H. Morgan, Opt. Commun. 283, 1987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, S. H. Tan, and A. K. Asundi, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 9, 889 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

S. K. Y. Tang, C. A. Stan, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 8, 395 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

J. Godin, V. Lien, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Y. C. Tung, M. Zhang, C. T. Lin, K. Kurabayashi, and S. J. Skerlos, Sens. Actuators 98, 356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, J. El-Ali, M. Engelund, T. Gotsæt, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, J. P. Kutter, and A. Wolff, Lab Chip 4, 372 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

N. Pamme, R. Koyama, and A. Manz, Lab Chip 3, 187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. Marie, F. Partensky, S. Jacquet, and D. Vaulot, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 186 (1997).
[PubMed]

Alt, C.

Asundi, A. K.

C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, Y. F. Yap, T. D. Luong, and A. K. Asundi, Microfluid. Nanofluid. (to be published).

C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, S. H. Tan, and A. K. Asundi, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 9, 889 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Song, N. T. Nguyen, A. K. Asundi, and C. L. N. Low, Opt. Lett. 34, 3622 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, S. H. Tan, and A. K. Asundi, Lab Chip 9, 1178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barat, D.

D. Barat, G. Benazzi, M. C. Mowlem, J. M. Ruano, and H. Morgan, Opt. Commun. 283, 1987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, L. M.

J. L. Garcia-Cordero, L. M. Barrett, R. O’Kennedy, and A. J. Ricco, Biomed. Microdevices 12, 1051 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benazzi, G.

D. Barat, G. Benazzi, M. C. Mowlem, J. M. Ruano, and H. Morgan, Opt. Commun. 283, 1987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cote, D.

El-Ali, J.

Z. Wang, J. El-Ali, M. Engelund, T. Gotsæt, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, J. P. Kutter, and A. Wolff, Lab Chip 4, 372 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engelund, M.

Z. Wang, J. El-Ali, M. Engelund, T. Gotsæt, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, J. P. Kutter, and A. Wolff, Lab Chip 4, 372 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Cordero, J. L.

J. L. Garcia-Cordero, L. M. Barrett, R. O’Kennedy, and A. J. Ricco, Biomed. Microdevices 12, 1051 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godin, J.

J. Godin, V. Lien, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gotsæt, T.

Z. Wang, J. El-Ali, M. Engelund, T. Gotsæt, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, J. P. Kutter, and A. Wolff, Lab Chip 4, 372 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacquet, S.

D. Marie, F. Partensky, S. Jacquet, and D. Vaulot, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 186 (1997).
[PubMed]

Koyama, R.

N. Pamme, R. Koyama, and A. Manz, Lab Chip 3, 187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kurabayashi, K.

Y. C. Tung, M. Zhang, C. T. Lin, K. Kurabayashi, and S. J. Skerlos, Sens. Actuators 98, 356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kutter, J. P.

Z. Wang, J. El-Ali, M. Engelund, T. Gotsæt, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, J. P. Kutter, and A. Wolff, Lab Chip 4, 372 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

Lien, V.

J. Godin, V. Lien, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

Lin, C. T.

Y. C. Tung, M. Zhang, C. T. Lin, K. Kurabayashi, and S. J. Skerlos, Sens. Actuators 98, 356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. H.

J. Godin, V. Lien, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Low, C. L. N.

Luong, T. D.

C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, Y. F. Yap, T. D. Luong, and A. K. Asundi, Microfluid. Nanofluid. (to be published).

Manz, A.

N. Pamme, R. Koyama, and A. Manz, Lab Chip 3, 187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marie, D.

D. Marie, F. Partensky, S. Jacquet, and D. Vaulot, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 186 (1997).
[PubMed]

Mogensen, K. B.

Z. Wang, J. El-Ali, M. Engelund, T. Gotsæt, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, J. P. Kutter, and A. Wolff, Lab Chip 4, 372 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, H.

D. Barat, G. Benazzi, M. C. Mowlem, J. M. Ruano, and H. Morgan, Opt. Commun. 283, 1987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mowlem, M. C.

D. Barat, G. Benazzi, M. C. Mowlem, J. M. Ruano, and H. Morgan, Opt. Commun. 283, 1987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N. T.

C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, Y. F. Yap, T. D. Luong, and A. K. Asundi, Microfluid. Nanofluid. (to be published).

C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, S. H. Tan, and A. K. Asundi, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 9, 889 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, S. H. Tan, and A. K. Asundi, Lab Chip 9, 1178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Song, N. T. Nguyen, A. K. Asundi, and C. L. N. Low, Opt. Lett. 34, 3622 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Kennedy, R.

J. L. Garcia-Cordero, L. M. Barrett, R. O’Kennedy, and A. J. Ricco, Biomed. Microdevices 12, 1051 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pamme, N.

N. Pamme, R. Koyama, and A. Manz, Lab Chip 3, 187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Partensky, F.

D. Marie, F. Partensky, S. Jacquet, and D. Vaulot, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 186 (1997).
[PubMed]

Perch-Nielsen, I. R.

Z. Wang, J. El-Ali, M. Engelund, T. Gotsæt, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, J. P. Kutter, and A. Wolff, Lab Chip 4, 372 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitsillides, C. M.

Ricco, A. J.

J. L. Garcia-Cordero, L. M. Barrett, R. O’Kennedy, and A. J. Ricco, Biomed. Microdevices 12, 1051 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruano, J. M.

D. Barat, G. Benazzi, M. C. Mowlem, J. M. Ruano, and H. Morgan, Opt. Commun. 283, 1987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Skerlos, S. J.

Y. C. Tung, M. Zhang, C. T. Lin, K. Kurabayashi, and S. J. Skerlos, Sens. Actuators 98, 356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Snakenborg, D.

Z. Wang, J. El-Ali, M. Engelund, T. Gotsæt, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, J. P. Kutter, and A. Wolff, Lab Chip 4, 372 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, C.

C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, Y. F. Yap, T. D. Luong, and A. K. Asundi, Microfluid. Nanofluid. (to be published).

C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, S. H. Tan, and A. K. Asundi, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 9, 889 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, S. H. Tan, and A. K. Asundi, Lab Chip 9, 1178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, C. L.

Stan, C. A.

S. K. Y. Tang, C. A. Stan, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 8, 395 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, S. H.

C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, S. H. Tan, and A. K. Asundi, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 9, 889 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, S. H. Tan, and A. K. Asundi, Lab Chip 9, 1178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, S. K. Y.

S. K. Y. Tang, C. A. Stan, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 8, 395 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tung, Y. C.

Y. C. Tung, M. Zhang, C. T. Lin, K. Kurabayashi, and S. J. Skerlos, Sens. Actuators 98, 356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vaulot, D.

D. Marie, F. Partensky, S. Jacquet, and D. Vaulot, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 186 (1997).
[PubMed]

Veilleux, I.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, J. El-Ali, M. Engelund, T. Gotsæt, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, J. P. Kutter, and A. Wolff, Lab Chip 4, 372 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

S. K. Y. Tang, C. A. Stan, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 8, 395 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, A.

Z. Wang, J. El-Ali, M. Engelund, T. Gotsæt, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, J. P. Kutter, and A. Wolff, Lab Chip 4, 372 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yap, Y. F.

C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, Y. F. Yap, T. D. Luong, and A. K. Asundi, Microfluid. Nanofluid. (to be published).

Zhang, M.

Y. C. Tung, M. Zhang, C. T. Lin, K. Kurabayashi, and S. J. Skerlos, Sens. Actuators 98, 356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1)

D. Marie, F. Partensky, S. Jacquet, and D. Vaulot, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 186 (1997).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Godin, V. Lien, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Microdevices (1)

J. L. Garcia-Cordero, L. M. Barrett, R. O’Kennedy, and A. J. Ricco, Biomed. Microdevices 12, 1051 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lab Chip (4)

N. Pamme, R. Koyama, and A. Manz, Lab Chip 3, 187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, J. El-Ali, M. Engelund, T. Gotsæt, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, J. P. Kutter, and A. Wolff, Lab Chip 4, 372 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Y. Tang, C. A. Stan, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 8, 395 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, S. H. Tan, and A. K. Asundi, Lab Chip 9, 1178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microfluid. Nanofluid. (2)

C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, S. H. Tan, and A. K. Asundi, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 9, 889 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Song, N. T. Nguyen, Y. F. Yap, T. D. Luong, and A. K. Asundi, Microfluid. Nanofluid. (to be published).

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Barat, G. Benazzi, M. C. Mowlem, J. M. Ruano, and H. Morgan, Opt. Commun. 283, 1987 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sens. Actuators (1)

Y. C. Tung, M. Zhang, C. T. Lin, K. Kurabayashi, and S. J. Skerlos, Sens. Actuators 98, 356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic configuration of a microfluidic flow cytometer using an optofluidic lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity profile across the beam waist. (a) Well- focused Gaussian beam across the channel. (b) Optofluidic lens with a flow-rate ratio ( ϕ core / ϕ cladding ) of 6.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scattered light signals for three different sizes of the microsphere: (a)  20 μm , (b)  10 μm , (c)  5 μm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Distributions of scattered light intensities (peak values) for three different particle sizes. (b) Scattered light intensities as a function of particle sizes.

Metrics