Abstract

We present a fiber-optic low-coherence imaging technique, termed spectral-domain differential interference contrast microscopy (SD-DIC), for quantitative DIC imaging of both reflective surfaces and transparent biological specimens. SD-DIC combines the common-path nature of a Nomarski DIC interferometer with the high sensitivity of spectral-domain low-coherence interferometry to obtain high-resolution, quantitative measurements of optical pathlength gradients from a single point on the sample. Full-field imaging can be achieved by scanning the sample. A reflected-light SD-DIC system was demonstrated using a USAF resolution target as the phase object. Live cardiomyocytes were also imaged, achieving a resolution of 36pm for pathlength gradient measurements. The dynamics of cardiomyocyte contraction were recorded with high sensitivity at selected sites on the cells.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (2)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

S. V. King, A. Libertun, R. Piestun, C. J. Cogswell, and C. Preza, J Biomed. Opt. 13, 024020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 214, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

1955 (1)

M. G. Nomarski, J. Phys. Radium 16, S9 (1955).

Arnison, M. R.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 214, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bursac, N.

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, N. Bursac, and A. Wax, Opt. Express 1, 706 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. P.

Choi, W.

Choma, M. A.

Cogswell, C. J.

S. V. King, A. Libertun, R. Piestun, C. J. Cogswell, and C. Preza, J Biomed. Opt. 13, 024020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 214, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Creazzo, T. L.

Dasari, R. R.

Dorn, A.

Ellerbee, A. K.

Feld, M. S.

Fercher, A. F.

Fu, D.

Hanninen, S. L.

T. Korhonen, S. L. Hanninen, and P. Tavi, Biophys. J. 96, 1189 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heise, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Izatt, J. A.

King, S. V.

S. V. King, A. Libertun, R. Piestun, C. J. Cogswell, and C. Preza, J Biomed. Opt. 13, 024020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korhonen, T.

T. Korhonen, S. L. Hanninen, and P. Tavi, Biophys. J. 96, 1189 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larkin, K. G.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 214, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Libertun, A.

S. V. King, A. Libertun, R. Piestun, C. J. Cogswell, and C. Preza, J Biomed. Opt. 13, 024020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nomarski, M. G.

M. G. Nomarski, J. Phys. Radium 16, S9 (1955).

Oh, S.

Piestun, R.

S. V. King, A. Libertun, R. Piestun, C. J. Cogswell, and C. Preza, J Biomed. Opt. 13, 024020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preza, C.

S. V. King, A. Libertun, R. Piestun, C. J. Cogswell, and C. Preza, J Biomed. Opt. 13, 024020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, B.

Sarunic, M. V.

Satterwhite, L. L.

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, N. Bursac, and A. Wax, Opt. Express 1, 706 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shaked, N. T.

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, N. Bursac, and A. Wax, Opt. Express 1, 706 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 214, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, N. I.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 214, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stifter, D.

Tavi, P.

T. Korhonen, S. L. Hanninen, and P. Tavi, Biophys. J. 96, 1189 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, N. Bursac, and A. Wax, Opt. Express 1, 706 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, T.

Yang, C. H.

Yaqoob, Z.

Yu, L. F.

Zhang, J.

Biophys. J. (1)

T. Korhonen, S. L. Hanninen, and P. Tavi, Biophys. J. 96, 1189 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. V. King, A. Libertun, R. Piestun, C. J. Cogswell, and C. Preza, J Biomed. Opt. 13, 024020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (Oxford) (1)

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 214, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Radium (1)

M. G. Nomarski, J. Phys. Radium 16, S9 (1955).

Opt. Express (2)

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, N. Bursac, and A. Wax, Opt. Express 1, 706 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 11, 2183 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SD-DIC system. (a) Schematic. SLD, superluminescence diode; SPM, spectrometer; L1 & L2, lenses. (b), (c) Possible sample configurations for surface profiling and live cell imaging, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SD-DIC images of a USAF resolution target. (a), (b) OPL gradient and bright-field intensity images of Group 7, Element 1; double arrow indicates the shear direction; scale bar is 10 μm . (c), (d) Cross-sectional profiles taken from (a) and (b) at positions indicated by the single arrows; inset explains the increased bar width in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Live cardiomyocyte measurements. (a) OPL gradient image of an isolated cardiomyocyte; double arrow indicates shear direction. (b) Corresponding bright-field image. (c) Upper, stochastic beating events at the circle in (a) for 2 min ; inset shows enlarged view of the two beating events; lower, background signal taken at the upper-left corner of the image. (d) Regular beating sequence of another cardiomyocyte shown in photograph (e), where the bright spot indicates illuminated location. Scale bars are 20 μm .

Equations (1)

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I t ( k ; x , y ) r o 2 ( x , y ) + r e 2 ( x , y ) + 2 η r o ( x , y ) r e ( x , y ) cos [ 2 k ( Δ L PR + δ L NP + δ L DIC ( x , y ) ) ] ,

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