Abstract

We experimentally generate n=0 Bessel beams via higher-order cladding mode excitation with a long period fiber grating. Our method allows >99% conversion efficiency, wide or narrow conversion bandwidth, and accurate control of the number of rings in the beam. This latter property is equivalent to tuning the beam cone angle and allows for control of width and propagation distance of the center spot. We generate Bessel-like beams from LP0,5 to LP0,15 cladding modes and measure their propagation-invariant characteristics as a function of mode order, which match numerical simulations and a simple geometric model. This yields a versatile tool for tuning depth of focus out of fiber tips, with potential uses in endoscopic microscopy.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P.-A. Lacourt, M. Jacqout, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. McLeod, and C. B. Arnold, Opt. Lett. 33, 2146 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

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D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1995).

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S.-K. Eah, W. Jhe, and Y. Arakawa, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4969 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, C. B.

Bachmann, A. H.

Beaurepaire, E.

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58(1996).
[CrossRef]

Bhuyan, M. K.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P.-A. Lacourt, M. Jacqout, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. T. A.

Charraut, D.

Chiu, D. T.

G. Milne, G. D. M. Jeffries, and D. T. Chiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chow, T. H.

Cižmár, T.

Courvoisier, F.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P.-A. Lacourt, M. Jacqout, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

Dudley, J. M.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P.-A. Lacourt, M. Jacqout, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Durnin, J.

Eah, S.-K.

S.-K. Eah, W. Jhe, and Y. Arakawa, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4969 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58(1996).
[CrossRef]

Fahrbach, F. O.

F. O. Fahrbach, P. Simon, and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Photon. 4, 780 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fini, J. M.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Friberg, A. T.

Furfaro, L.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P.-A. Lacourt, M. Jacqout, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcés-Chávez, V.

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghalmi, S.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grosjean, T.

Grunwald, R.

Ha, W.

Herman, P. R.

Herrington, C. S.

Ibrahim, I. A.

Jacqout, M.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P.-A. Lacourt, M. Jacqout, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, G. D. M.

G. Milne, G. D. M. Jeffries, and D. T. Chiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y. S.

Jhe, W.

S.-K. Eah, W. Jhe, and Y. Arakawa, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4969 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58(1996).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

Kim, J.

Kim, J. K.

Lacourt, P.-A.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P.-A. Lacourt, M. Jacqout, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lasser, T.

Lee, S.

Lee, W. M.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lemaire, P. L.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58(1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Li, L.

X. Zhu, A. Schülzgen, L. Li, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mazilu, M.

McGloin, D.

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLeod, E.

Melville, H.

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mermelstein, M.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

Milne, G.

G. Milne, G. D. M. Jeffries, and D. T. Chiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, U.

Ng, B. K.

Nicholson, J. W.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Olivier, N.

Peyghambarian, N.

X. Zhu, A. Schülzgen, L. Li, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piquerey, V.

Ramachandran, S.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, Z. Wang, and M. Yan, Opt. Lett. 27, 698(2002).
[CrossRef]

Rohrbach, A.

F. O. Fahrbach, P. Simon, and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Photon. 4, 780 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

Saleh, S. S.

Salut, R.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P.-A. Lacourt, M. Jacqout, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sandoz, P.

Schülzgen, A.

X. Zhu, A. Schülzgen, L. Li, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Simon, P.

F. O. Fahrbach, P. Simon, and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Photon. 4, 780 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58(1996).
[CrossRef]

Steinmann, L.

Suarez, M. A.

Taguchi, K.

Tan, K. M.

Tünnermann, A.

Turunen, J.

Vasara, A.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58(1996).
[CrossRef]

Villiger, M.

Wang, Z.

Yan, M.

Yan, M. F.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu, A. Schülzgen, L. Li, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

X. Zhu, A. Schülzgen, L. Li, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Milne, G. D. M. Jeffries, and D. T. Chiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P.-A. Lacourt, M. Jacqout, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Contemp. Phys. (1)

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58(1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

E. McLeod and C. B. Arnold, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 413(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (1)

F. O. Fahrbach, P. Simon, and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Photon. 4, 780 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S.-K. Eah, W. Jhe, and Y. Arakawa, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4969 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1995).

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: AVI (3759 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2467 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (3649 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (2972 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of a LPG coupler generating a high-order cladding mode. (b) Experimentally measured grating spectrum generating a LP 0 , 10 mode (left axis) and output spectrum of probe laser (right axis). (c) Experimental setup for characterizing Bessel-like beam propagation and experimentally recorded near-field image of the LP 0 , 10 mode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Contour plots for free-space propagation of the LP 0 , 5 (left) and LP 0 , 15 (right) cladding modes. Top row shows simulation results, middle row shows experimental results, and bottom row shows representative experimental 2-D images at the positions indicated. Animations of full 3-D experimental data are in Media 1 ( 3759 KB ) ( LP 0 , 5 ) and Media 2 ( 2467 KB ) ( LP 0 , 15 ). Bottom row images are on a linear scale normalized to maximum pixel value in each image, whereas animations are normalized to the maximum pixel value across the entire image stack and scaled to Γ = 0.5 for enhanced contrast.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic diagram for a geometric model of a LP 0 , m mode as plane waves on a cone. (b), (c) Comparison between experiment, simulation, and the geometric model of the evolution of the center spot maximum intensity and FWHM as a function of propagation distance for the LP 0 , 8 mode. (d), (e) Comparison between experiment, simulation, and the geometric model of z max and FWHM as a function of radial mode order.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic diagram of self-healing fiber Bessel beam experiment. Images show the obstructed LP 0 , 5 mode at the (b) focus and (c)  10 cm behind the obstruction. Equivalent images for the LP 0 , 15 mode are shown in (d) and (e). Animations of full 3-D experimental data shown are in Media 3 ( 3649 KB ) ( LP 0 , 5 ) and Media 4 ( 2972 KB ) ( LP 0 , 15 ). (b)–(e) are shown on a linear scale normalized to the maximum pixel value in each image, whereas the animations are normalized to the maximum pixel value across the entire image stack, and Media 4 is scaled to Γ = 0.5 for enhanced contrast.

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