Abstract

We report on a new method for determining dopant ion concentrations in laser materials. This method is based on optical absorption spectroscopy. In contrast to other methods used to measure the dopant concentration that are based on absorption measurements, this method does not require the knowledge of the absorption cross sections. An advantage of this method compared to the micro probe analysis is that only concentrations of dopant ions of a certain valency, which are luminescent, are detected. The method is sensitive especially for small doping concentrations of ions with high absorption cross sections. Another application of this method is the determination of the ratio between luminescent dopant ions to the total number of dopant ions in the case that not all dopant ions are on crystal sites that allow for optical transitions.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Auzel, J. Lumin. 45, 341 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Castaing and A. Guinier, Anal. Chem. 25, 724 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. P. Weber, P. F. Liao, and B. C. Tofield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 563 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. E. McCumber, Phys. Rev. 136, A954 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  6. If the dopant ion density has been measured by the microprobe analysis, Eq.  can also be used to determine other spectroscopic parameters, for example, the radiative fluorescence lifetime τ.
  7. N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, Appl. Phys. B 86, 275 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. A. Capobianca, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorge, M. Betinelli, and E. Cavalli, Chem. Phys. 214, 329 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Ileri, “Lattice matching of epitaxial rare-earth-doped dielectric PLD-films,” Ph.D. thesis (Institut für Laser-Physik, Universität Hamburg, 2007).
  10. B. C. Chakoumakos, M. M. Abraham, and L. A. Boatner, J. Solid State Chem. 109, 197 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Fornasiero, “Nd3+- und Tm3+-dotierte sesquioxide,” Ph.D. thesis (Institut für Laser-Physik, Universität Hamburg, 1999).
  12. B. C. Tofield and H. P. Weber, Phys, Rev. B 10, 4560 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. GmelinHandbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Seltenerdelemente, Teil C1,” (Springer-Verlag, 1974).
  14. H. Kühn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, C. Kränkel, R. Peters, and K. Petermann, Opt. Lett. 32, 1908 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 102, 19 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Concas, G. Spano, E. Zych, and J. Trojan-Piegza, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 2597 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 102, 19 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

H. Kühn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, C. Kränkel, R. Peters, and K. Petermann, Opt. Lett. 32, 1908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, Appl. Phys. B 86, 275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. Concas, G. Spano, E. Zych, and J. Trojan-Piegza, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 2597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. A. Capobianca, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorge, M. Betinelli, and E. Cavalli, Chem. Phys. 214, 329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

B. C. Chakoumakos, M. M. Abraham, and L. A. Boatner, J. Solid State Chem. 109, 197 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

F. Auzel, J. Lumin. 45, 341 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

B. C. Tofield and H. P. Weber, Phys, Rev. B 10, 4560 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Weber, P. F. Liao, and B. C. Tofield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 563 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, Phys. Rev. 136, A954 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

R. Castaing and A. Guinier, Anal. Chem. 25, 724 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, M. M.

B. C. Chakoumakos, M. M. Abraham, and L. A. Boatner, J. Solid State Chem. 109, 197 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, J. Lumin. 45, 341 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Betinelli, M.

J. A. Capobianca, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorge, M. Betinelli, and E. Cavalli, Chem. Phys. 214, 329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bludau, W.

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Boatner, L. A.

B. C. Chakoumakos, M. M. Abraham, and L. A. Boatner, J. Solid State Chem. 109, 197 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Capobianca, J. A.

J. A. Capobianca, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorge, M. Betinelli, and E. Cavalli, Chem. Phys. 214, 329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Castaing, R.

R. Castaing and A. Guinier, Anal. Chem. 25, 724 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Cavalli, E.

J. A. Capobianca, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorge, M. Betinelli, and E. Cavalli, Chem. Phys. 214, 329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chakoumakos, B. C.

B. C. Chakoumakos, M. M. Abraham, and L. A. Boatner, J. Solid State Chem. 109, 197 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Concas, G.

G. Concas, G. Spano, E. Zych, and J. Trojan-Piegza, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 2597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Danielmeyer, H. G.

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ermeneux, F. S.

J. A. Capobianca, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorge, M. Betinelli, and E. Cavalli, Chem. Phys. 214, 329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fornasiero, L.

L. Fornasiero, “Nd3+- und Tm3+-dotierte sesquioxide,” Ph.D. thesis (Institut für Laser-Physik, Universität Hamburg, 1999).

Fredrich-Thornton, S. T.

Gmelin, L.

L. GmelinHandbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Seltenerdelemente, Teil C1,” (Springer-Verlag, 1974).

Guinier, A.

R. Castaing and A. Guinier, Anal. Chem. 25, 724 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 102, 19 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ileri, B.

B. Ileri, “Lattice matching of epitaxial rare-earth-doped dielectric PLD-films,” Ph.D. thesis (Institut für Laser-Physik, Universität Hamburg, 2007).

Kabro, P.

J. A. Capobianca, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorge, M. Betinelli, and E. Cavalli, Chem. Phys. 214, 329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kisel, V. E.

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, Appl. Phys. B 86, 275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koopmann, P.

P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 102, 19 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kränkel, C.

Krühler, W. W.

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kühn, H.

Kuleshov, N. V.

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, Appl. Phys. B 86, 275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kupchenko, M. I.

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, Appl. Phys. B 86, 275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kurilchik, S. V.

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, Appl. Phys. B 86, 275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, P. F.

H. P. Weber, P. F. Liao, and B. C. Tofield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 563 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Matrosov, V. N.

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, Appl. Phys. B 86, 275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matrosova, T. A.

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, Appl. Phys. B 86, 275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, Phys. Rev. 136, A954 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Moncorge, R.

J. A. Capobianca, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorge, M. Betinelli, and E. Cavalli, Chem. Phys. 214, 329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

Peters, R.

Spano, G.

G. Concas, G. Spano, E. Zych, and J. Trojan-Piegza, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 2597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tofield, B. C.

B. C. Tofield and H. P. Weber, Phys, Rev. B 10, 4560 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Weber, P. F. Liao, and B. C. Tofield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 563 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tolstik, N. A.

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, Appl. Phys. B 86, 275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trojan-Piegza, J.

G. Concas, G. Spano, E. Zych, and J. Trojan-Piegza, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 2597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Troshin, A. E.

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, Appl. Phys. B 86, 275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

H. P. Weber, P. F. Liao, and B. C. Tofield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 563 (1974).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Tofield and H. P. Weber, Phys, Rev. B 10, 4560 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Zych, E.

G. Concas, G. Spano, E. Zych, and J. Trojan-Piegza, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 2597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

R. Castaing and A. Guinier, Anal. Chem. 25, 724 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, Appl. Phys. B 86, 275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 102, 19 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

J. A. Capobianca, P. Kabro, F. S. Ermeneux, R. Moncorge, M. Betinelli, and E. Cavalli, Chem. Phys. 214, 329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. P. Weber, P. F. Liao, and B. C. Tofield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 563 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

F. Auzel, J. Lumin. 45, 341 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

G. Concas, G. Spano, E. Zych, and J. Trojan-Piegza, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 2597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

B. C. Chakoumakos, M. M. Abraham, and L. A. Boatner, J. Solid State Chem. 109, 197 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys, Rev. B (1)

B. C. Tofield and H. P. Weber, Phys, Rev. B 10, 4560 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. E. McCumber, Phys. Rev. 136, A954 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

If the dopant ion density has been measured by the microprobe analysis, Eq.  can also be used to determine other spectroscopic parameters, for example, the radiative fluorescence lifetime τ.

L. Fornasiero, “Nd3+- und Tm3+-dotierte sesquioxide,” Ph.D. thesis (Institut für Laser-Physik, Universität Hamburg, 1999).

B. Ileri, “Lattice matching of epitaxial rare-earth-doped dielectric PLD-films,” Ph.D. thesis (Institut für Laser-Physik, Universität Hamburg, 2007).

L. GmelinHandbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Seltenerdelemente, Teil C1,” (Springer-Verlag, 1974).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption coefficients in σ and π polarizations for a 1.25 mm long Er 3 + : YVO 4 crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption cross sections in σ and π polarizations for a 1.25 mm long Er 3 + ( 1.13   at.   % ) : YVO 4 crystal.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ em , α ( λ ) = η j i λ 5 I α ( λ ) 8 π n α 2 ( λ ) c τ λ 1 3 β I β ( λ ) d λ .
σ em , α ( λ ) = σ abs , α ( λ ) Z l Z u e Δ E k T = σ abs , α ( λ ) Z l Z u e h c λ · k T .
I α ( λ ) = a σ em , α ( λ ) n α 2 ( λ ) / λ 5 ,
σ em , α ( λ ) = η j i σ em , α ( λ ) 8 π c τ 1 λ 4 1 3 β n β 2 ( λ ) σ em , β ( λ ) d λ .
1 = η j i 8 π c τ Z l Z u 1 λ 4 e h c λ · k T 1 3 β n β 2 ( λ ) σ abs , β ( λ ) d λ .
N g = 8 π c τ η j i Z l Z u 1 λ 4 e h c λ · k T 1 3 β n β 2 ( λ ) α abs , β ( λ ) d λ .
N g = 8 π c τ η j i Z l Z u 1 λ 4 e h c λ · k T ( 2 3 n σ 2 ( λ ) α abs , σ ( λ ) + 1 3 n π 2 ( λ ) α abs , π ( λ ) ) d λ .

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