Abstract

We report on a noncontact photoacoustic imaging (PAI) technique in which a low-coherence interferometer [(LCI), optical coherence tomography (OCT) hardware] is utilized as the acoustic detector. A synchronization approach is used to lock the LCI system at its highly sensitive region for photoacoustic detection. The technique is experimentally verified by the imaging of a scattering phantom embedded with hairs and the blood vessels within a mouse ear in vitro. The system’s axial and lateral resolutions are evaluated at 60 and 30μm, respectively. The experimental results indicate that PAI in a noncontact detection mode is possible with high resolution and high bandwidth. The proposed approach lends itself to a natural integration of PAI with OCT, rather than a combination of two separate and independent systems.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011 (3)

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1134 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Liu, Q. Wei, J. Wang, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1359 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. A. Carp, A. Guerra, S. Q. Duque, and V. Venugopalan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, D. Xing, Y. Zeng, and Q. Chen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3117 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

R. A. Kruger, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, Med. Phys. 26, 1832 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. F. Pouet, R. K. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. Paul, B. Betz, and W. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1569 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Alex, A.

E. Z. Zhang, J. Laufer, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, W. Drexler, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arbeit, J. M.

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, W.

M. Paul, B. Betz, and W. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1569 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Beard, P.

E. Z. Zhang, J. Laufer, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, W. Drexler, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Zhang, J. Laufer, and P. Beard, Appl. Opt. 47, 561 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berer, T.

Betz, B.

M. Paul, B. Betz, and W. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1569 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Burgholzer, P.

Carp, S. A.

S. A. Carp, A. Guerra, S. Q. Duque, and V. Venugopalan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Y. Wang, D. Xing, Y. Zeng, and Q. Chen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3117 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

E. Z. Zhang, J. Laufer, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, W. Drexler, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duque, S. Q.

S. A. Carp, A. Guerra, S. Q. Duque, and V. Venugopalan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Erpelding, T. N.

Esenaliev, R. O.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guerra, A.

S. A. Carp, A. Guerra, S. Q. Duque, and V. Venugopalan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haltmeier, M.

Hochreiner, A.

Hofer, B.

E. Z. Zhang, J. Laufer, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, W. Drexler, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S.

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1134 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ing, R. K.

B. F. Pouet, R. K. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jankovic, L.

Jiao, S.

Karabutov, A. A.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

Kovalski, J.

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnaswamy, S.

B. F. Pouet, R. K. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, G. A.

R. A. Kruger, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, Med. Phys. 26, 1832 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruger, R. A.

R. A. Kruger, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, Med. Phys. 26, 1832 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, G.

Laufer, J.

E. Z. Zhang, J. Laufer, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, W. Drexler, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Zhang, J. Laufer, and P. Beard, Appl. Opt. 47, 561 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Liu, T.

Maslov, K.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1134 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, K. Maslov, G. Ku, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Express 17, 16450 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuster, R.

Oladipupo, S. S.

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A. A.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paltauf, G.

Pashley, M. D.

Paul, M.

M. Paul, B. Betz, and W. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1569 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pouet, B. F.

B. F. Pouet, R. K. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Považay, B.

E. Z. Zhang, J. Laufer, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, W. Drexler, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U (2010).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

Reinecke, D. R.

R. A. Kruger, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, Med. Phys. 26, 1832 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Royer, D.

B. F. Pouet, R. K. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Santeford, A. C.

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shohet, R. V.

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venugopalan, V.

S. A. Carp, A. Guerra, S. Q. Duque, and V. Venugopalan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, L. V.

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1134 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, L. Jankovic, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, K. Maslov, G. Ku, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Express 17, 16450 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photon. 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang, Med. Phys. 35, 5758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, D. Xing, Y. Zeng, and Q. Chen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3117 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, Q.

Xie, Z.

Xing, D.

Y. Wang, D. Xing, Y. Zeng, and Q. Chen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3117 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zamiri, S.

Zeng, Y.

Y. Wang, D. Xing, Y. Zeng, and Q. Chen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3117 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, E.

Zhang, E. Z.

E. Z. Zhang, J. Laufer, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, W. Drexler, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. F.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

B. F. Pouet, R. K. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Paul, B. Betz, and W. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1569 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Carp, A. Guerra, S. Q. Duque, and V. Venugopalan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Blood (1)

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (2)

L. V. Wang, Med. Phys. 35, 5758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kruger, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, Med. Phys. 26, 1832 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (1)

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photon. 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

Y. Wang, D. Xing, Y. Zeng, and Q. Chen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3117 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. Z. Zhang, J. Laufer, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, W. Drexler, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoacoustic signals detected from a black tape sample: (a) transient displacement and (b) corresponding transient pressure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results obtained from a scattering phantom in which three hairs are placed: (a) typical B-scan image and (b) corresponding maximum intensity projection along the depth.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Imaging of the blood vessels within a mouse pinna in vitro. Inset, photograph of the area imaged by the system. Note: the photograph was digitally enhanced to more clearly show the blood vessels.

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