Abstract

In this Letter, we combine the use of optical preamplification at the receiver and optical pulse coding techniques with an optimized modulation format to effectively extend the sensing range of Brillouin optical time-domain anal ysis (BOTDA) sensors. Combining a return-to-zero modulation format with 25% duty cycle and linear gain preamplification allows for temperature and strain measurements over 120km of standard single-mode fiber with 3m spatial resolution and an rms strain–temperature accuracy of 3.1°C/60με respectively.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Minardo, R. Bernini, L. Zeni, L. Thévenaz, and F. Briffod, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 900 (2005).
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  2. M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. Di Pasquale, and L. Thévenaz, Opt. Lett. 35, 259 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Rodríguez-Barrios, S. Martín-López, A. Carrasco-Sanz, P. Corredera, J. D. Ania-Castañón, L. Thévenaz, and M. González-Herráez, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2162 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, and F. Di Pasquale, Opt. Express 18, 14878 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1321 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 633 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010

2009

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 633 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, L. Zeni, L. Thévenaz, and F. Briffod, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 900 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alahbabi, M. N.

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

Bernini, R.

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 633 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, L. Zeni, L. Thévenaz, and F. Briffod, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 900 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bolognini, G.

Briffod, F.

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, L. Zeni, L. Thévenaz, and F. Briffod, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 900 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carrasco-Sanz, A.

Cho, Y. T.

Corredera, P.

González-Herráez, M.

Martín-López, S.

Minardo, A.

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 633 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, L. Zeni, L. Thévenaz, and F. Briffod, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 900 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Newson, T. P.

Pasquale, F. Di

Rodríguez-Barrios, F.

Soto, M. A.

Thévenaz, L.

Zeni, L.

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sens. J. 9, 633 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, L. Zeni, L. Thévenaz, and F. Briffod, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 900 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the coded-BOTDA sensor. DFB, distributed-feedback laser; PC, polarization controller; MZM, Mach–Zehnder modulator; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; VOA, variable optical attenuator; PS, polarization scrambler; FBG, fiber Bragg grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

BOTDA traces at 10.863 GHz for both simplex coding with (black line) and without (gray line) optical pre amplification.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured Brillouin frequency shift versus distance. Inset, Brillouin gain spectrum near 120 km distance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental validation of 3 m spatial resolution over 120 km distance. (a) BGS and (b) BFS versus distance (near far fiber-end).

Equations (1)

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Δ I CW ( t , Δ ν ) = I CWL exp ( α L ) { exp [ v g t / 2 v g t / 2 + Δ z g B ( ξ , Δ ν ) I p ( ξ , Δ ν ) d ξ ] 1 } ,

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