Abstract

Microbubble resonators combine the unique properties of whispering gallery mode resonators with the intrinsic capability of integrated microfluidics. Here an improved fabrication method of microbubble resonators is presented, based on the heating of a slightly pressurized capillary by a rotating arc discharge. Rotation of the electrodes, moved out of a fiber splicer, ensures a homogeneous distribution of the heat all over the capillary surface. The demonstrated microbubble resonators have Q factors up to 6×107 at 1550nm. Microbubbles were filled with water and aqueous solutions of ethanol in order to test the refractive index sensing capabilities of such resonators, which also show a good temporal stability. The limit of detection of our microbubble resonator sensor is 106RIU.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Postnova http://www.postnova.com.
  17. Department of Optical Fibres Technology, Institute of Photonics and Electronics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic.
  18. S. Soria, F. Baldini, S. Berneschi, F. Cosi, A. Giannetti, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, B. Tiribilli, and G. C. Righini, Opt. Express 17, 14694 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011

G. C. Righini, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, D. Ristic, and S. Soria, Riv. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 34, 435 (2011).

A. Watkins, J. Ward, Y. Wu, and S. N. Chormaic, Opt. Lett. 36, 2113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Lett. 35, 898 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun and X. Fan, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399, 205 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Li and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, Y. Guo, Y. Sun, K. Reddy, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 18, 25081 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Lett. 35, 1866 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

2007

X. Fan, I. M. White, H. Zu, J. D. Suter, and H. Oveys, Proc. SPIE 6452, 64520M 1 (2007).

2006

2004

2003

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldini, F.

Berneschi, S.

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chiasera, A.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chormaic, S. N.

Cosi, F.

Dimmick, T. E.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dulashko, Y.

Dumeige, Y.

G. C. Righini, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, D. Ristic, and S. Soria, Riv. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 34, 435 (2011).

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

Y. Sun and X. Fan, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399, 205 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Li and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, Y. Guo, Y. Sun, K. Reddy, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 18, 25081 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. White and X. Fan, Opt. Express 16, 1020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Fan, I. M. White, H. Zu, J. D. Suter, and H. Oveys, Proc. SPIE 6452, 64520M 1 (2007).

I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, Opt. Lett. 31, 1319(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Féron, P.

G. C. Righini, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, D. Ristic, and S. Soria, Riv. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 34, 435 (2011).

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

G. C. Righini, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, D. Ristic, and S. Soria, Riv. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 34, 435 (2011).

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giannetti, A.

Guo, Y.

Jestin, Y.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Murugan, G. S.

G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, Opt. Express 17, 11916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Zervas, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Petrovich, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Hollow-bottle optical microresonators,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Md., USA, May 1–6, 2011.

Nunzi Conti, G.

G. C. Righini, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, D. Ristic, and S. Soria, Riv. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 34, 435 (2011).

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Soria, F. Baldini, S. Berneschi, F. Cosi, A. Giannetti, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, B. Tiribilli, and G. C. Righini, Opt. Express 17, 14694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Shea, D.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oveys, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, H. Zu, J. D. Suter, and H. Oveys, Proc. SPIE 6452, 64520M 1 (2007).

I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, Opt. Lett. 31, 1319(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelli, S.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Soria, F. Baldini, S. Berneschi, F. Cosi, A. Giannetti, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, B. Tiribilli, and G. C. Righini, Opt. Express 17, 14694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrovich, M. N.

M. N. Zervas, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Petrovich, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Hollow-bottle optical microresonators,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Md., USA, May 1–6, 2011.

Pöllinger, M.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reddy, K.

Righini, G. C.

G. C. Righini, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, D. Ristic, and S. Soria, Riv. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 34, 435 (2011).

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Soria, F. Baldini, S. Berneschi, F. Cosi, A. Giannetti, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, B. Tiribilli, and G. C. Righini, Opt. Express 17, 14694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ristic, D.

G. C. Righini, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, D. Ristic, and S. Soria, Riv. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 34, 435 (2011).

Soria, S.

G. C. Righini, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, D. Ristic, and S. Soria, Riv. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 34, 435 (2011).

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Soria, F. Baldini, S. Berneschi, F. Cosi, A. Giannetti, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, B. Tiribilli, and G. C. Righini, Opt. Express 17, 14694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumetsky, M.

Sun, Y.

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, H. Zu, J. D. Suter, and H. Oveys, Proc. SPIE 6452, 64520M 1 (2007).

Tiribilli, B.

Vahala, K. J.

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, J.

Warken, F.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watkins, A.

White, I. M.

Wilkinson, J. S.

G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, Opt. Express 17, 11916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Zervas, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Petrovich, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Hollow-bottle optical microresonators,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Md., USA, May 1–6, 2011.

Windeler, R. S.

Wu, Y.

Zervas, M. N.

G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, Opt. Express 17, 11916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Zervas, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Petrovich, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Hollow-bottle optical microresonators,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Md., USA, May 1–6, 2011.

Zu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, H. Zu, J. D. Suter, and H. Oveys, Proc. SPIE 6452, 64520M 1 (2007).

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

Y. Sun and X. Fan, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399, 205 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Li and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

X. Fan, I. M. White, H. Zu, J. D. Suter, and H. Oveys, Proc. SPIE 6452, 64520M 1 (2007).

Riv. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis.

G. C. Righini, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, D. Ristic, and S. Soria, Riv. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 34, 435 (2011).

Other

M. N. Zervas, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Petrovich, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Hollow-bottle optical microresonators,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Md., USA, May 1–6, 2011.

Postnova http://www.postnova.com.

Department of Optical Fibres Technology, Institute of Photonics and Electronics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical images of three different bubbles: (a) MBR with OD of about 390 μm , created from a capillary with OD 350 μm and wall thickness 57 μm ; (b) MBR with OD 205 μm , created from a capillary with OD 122 μm and wall thickness 21 μm and (c) MBR with OD 340 μm , created from a capillary with OD 280 μm and wall thickness 20 μm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical image of a section of the MBR shown in Fig. 1c.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)  3 GHz resonance spectrum around 1550 nm obtained with the taper in contact with an empty MBR of the type shown in Fig. 1c. One of the resonances is close to the critical coupling condition (contrast 95 % ). (b) higher Q factor resonance measured in undercoupling condition. The red line are the Lorentzian fits of the resonance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Resonance shift due to the change of the bulk refractive index in the core of the MBR. The solid line is a linear fit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal stability of the MBR resonant mode for different concentrations of ethanol (squares: pure water; dots: 25% of ethanol; upper triangles: 50% of ethanol; lower triangles: 75% of ethanol. Concentrations are in volume).

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