Abstract

Experiments with an all-optical method for the study of the nonlinear acoustics of cracks in solids are reported. Nonlinear acoustic waves are initiated by the absorption of radiation from a pair of laser beams intensity modulated at two different frequencies. The detection of acoustic waves at mixed frequencies, absent in the frequency spectrum of the heating lasers, by optical interferometry or deflectometry provides unambiguous evidence of the elastic nonlinearity of the crack. The high contrast in crack imaging achieved by remote optical monitoring of the nonlinear acoustic processes is due to the strong dependence of the efficiency of optoacoustic conversion on the state of the crack. The highest acoustic nonlinearity is observed in the transitional state of the crack, which is intermediate between the open and the closed ones.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (1)

V. Gusev and N. Chigarev, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 124905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

N. Chigarev, J. Zakrzewski, V. Tournat, and V. Gusev, J. Appl. Phys. 106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

G. Grégoire, V. Tournat, D. Mounier, and V. Gusev, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 153, 313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

I. Solodov, J. Wackerl, K. Pfleiderer, and G. Busse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5386 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Moussatov, V. Gusev, and B. Castagnède, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 124301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

B. A. Korshak, I. Y. Solodov, and E. M. Ballad, Ultrasonics 40, 707 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Zaitsev, V. Gusev, and B. Castagnède, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 105502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Yu. Solodov, N. Krohn, and G. Busse, Ultrasonics 40, 621(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Krohn, R. Stoessel, and G. Busse, Ultrasonics 40, 633(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yan and P. B. Nagy, Ultrasonics 40, 689 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

I. Y. Solodov and B. A. Korshak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 014303(2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

I. Yu Solodov, Ultrasonics 36, 383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Nagy, Ultrasonics 36, 375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Xiao and P. B. Nagy, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 7453 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

O. B. Wright and K. Kawashima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1668 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. Van Hulst, and J. Greve, J. Appl. Phys. 72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

J.-P. Monchalin, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 33, 485 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

O. Buck, W. L. Morris, and J. M. Richardson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 371 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ballad, E. M.

B. A. Korshak, I. Y. Solodov, and E. M. Ballad, Ultrasonics 40, 707 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buck, O.

O. Buck, W. L. Morris, and J. M. Richardson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 371 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Busse, G.

I. Solodov, J. Wackerl, K. Pfleiderer, and G. Busse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5386 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Krohn, R. Stoessel, and G. Busse, Ultrasonics 40, 633(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Yu. Solodov, N. Krohn, and G. Busse, Ultrasonics 40, 621(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castagnède, B.

A. Moussatov, V. Gusev, and B. Castagnède, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 124301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Zaitsev, V. Gusev, and B. Castagnède, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 105502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chigarev, N.

V. Gusev and N. Chigarev, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 124905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Chigarev, J. Zakrzewski, V. Tournat, and V. Gusev, J. Appl. Phys. 106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Grooth, B. G.

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. Van Hulst, and J. Greve, J. Appl. Phys. 72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dieulesaint, E.

D. Royer and E. Dieulesaint, Elastic Waves in Solids II: Generation, Acousto-Optic Interaction, Applications (Springer, 2000).

Grégoire, G.

G. Grégoire, V. Tournat, D. Mounier, and V. Gusev, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 153, 313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. Van Hulst, and J. Greve, J. Appl. Phys. 72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gusev, V.

V. Gusev and N. Chigarev, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 124905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Chigarev, J. Zakrzewski, V. Tournat, and V. Gusev, J. Appl. Phys. 106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Grégoire, V. Tournat, D. Mounier, and V. Gusev, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 153, 313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Moussatov, V. Gusev, and B. Castagnède, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 124301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Zaitsev, V. Gusev, and B. Castagnède, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 105502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gusev, V. E.

V. E. Gusev and A. A. Karabutov, Laser Optoacoustics (American Institute of Physics, 1993).

Karabutov, A. A.

V. E. Gusev and A. A. Karabutov, Laser Optoacoustics (American Institute of Physics, 1993).

Kawashima, K.

O. B. Wright and K. Kawashima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1668 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korshak, B. A.

B. A. Korshak, I. Y. Solodov, and E. M. Ballad, Ultrasonics 40, 707 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Y. Solodov and B. A. Korshak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 014303(2001).
[CrossRef]

Krohn, N.

I. Yu. Solodov, N. Krohn, and G. Busse, Ultrasonics 40, 621(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Krohn, R. Stoessel, and G. Busse, Ultrasonics 40, 633(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monchalin, J.-P.

J.-P. Monchalin, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 33, 485 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Morris, W. L.

O. Buck, W. L. Morris, and J. M. Richardson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 371 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mounier, D.

G. Grégoire, V. Tournat, D. Mounier, and V. Gusev, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 153, 313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moussatov, A.

A. Moussatov, V. Gusev, and B. Castagnède, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 124301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagy, P. B.

Z. Yan and P. B. Nagy, Ultrasonics 40, 689 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xiao and P. B. Nagy, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 7453 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Nagy, Ultrasonics 36, 375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pfleiderer, K.

I. Solodov, J. Wackerl, K. Pfleiderer, and G. Busse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5386 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Putman, C. A. J.

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. Van Hulst, and J. Greve, J. Appl. Phys. 72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, J. M.

O. Buck, W. L. Morris, and J. M. Richardson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 371 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rothenberg, J. E.

Royer, D.

D. Royer and E. Dieulesaint, Elastic Waves in Solids II: Generation, Acousto-Optic Interaction, Applications (Springer, 2000).

Solodov, I.

I. Solodov, J. Wackerl, K. Pfleiderer, and G. Busse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5386 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Solodov, I. Y.

B. A. Korshak, I. Y. Solodov, and E. M. Ballad, Ultrasonics 40, 707 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Y. Solodov and B. A. Korshak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 014303(2001).
[CrossRef]

Solodov, I. Yu

I. Yu Solodov, Ultrasonics 36, 383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Solodov, I. Yu.

I. Yu. Solodov, N. Krohn, and G. Busse, Ultrasonics 40, 621(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoessel, R.

N. Krohn, R. Stoessel, and G. Busse, Ultrasonics 40, 633(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tournat, V.

N. Chigarev, J. Zakrzewski, V. Tournat, and V. Gusev, J. Appl. Phys. 106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Grégoire, V. Tournat, D. Mounier, and V. Gusev, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 153, 313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Hulst, N. F.

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. Van Hulst, and J. Greve, J. Appl. Phys. 72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wackerl, J.

I. Solodov, J. Wackerl, K. Pfleiderer, and G. Busse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5386 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wright, O. B.

O. B. Wright and K. Kawashima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1668 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, H.

H. Xiao and P. B. Nagy, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 7453 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Z.

Z. Yan and P. B. Nagy, Ultrasonics 40, 689 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaitsev, V.

V. Zaitsev, V. Gusev, and B. Castagnède, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 105502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zakrzewski, J.

N. Chigarev, J. Zakrzewski, V. Tournat, and V. Gusev, J. Appl. Phys. 106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

O. Buck, W. L. Morris, and J. M. Richardson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 371 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. Solodov, J. Wackerl, K. Pfleiderer, and G. Busse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5386 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. (1)

G. Grégoire, V. Tournat, D. Mounier, and V. Gusev, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 153, 313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. (1)

J.-P. Monchalin, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 33, 485 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

N. Chigarev, J. Zakrzewski, V. Tournat, and V. Gusev, J. Appl. Phys. 106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Gusev and N. Chigarev, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 124905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Xiao and P. B. Nagy, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 7453 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. Van Hulst, and J. Greve, J. Appl. Phys. 72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

O. B. Wright and K. Kawashima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1668 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Zaitsev, V. Gusev, and B. Castagnède, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 105502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Moussatov, V. Gusev, and B. Castagnède, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 124301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Y. Solodov and B. A. Korshak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 014303(2001).
[CrossRef]

Ultrasonics (6)

B. A. Korshak, I. Y. Solodov, and E. M. Ballad, Ultrasonics 40, 707 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Yu Solodov, Ultrasonics 36, 383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Yu. Solodov, N. Krohn, and G. Busse, Ultrasonics 40, 621(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Nagy, Ultrasonics 36, 375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Krohn, R. Stoessel, and G. Busse, Ultrasonics 40, 633(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yan and P. B. Nagy, Ultrasonics 40, 689 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

D. Royer and E. Dieulesaint, Elastic Waves in Solids II: Generation, Acousto-Optic Interaction, Applications (Springer, 2000).

V. E. Gusev and A. A. Karabutov, Laser Optoacoustics (American Institute of Physics, 1993).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the photoacoustic signal amplitude on the power of the heating laser at frequencies f H (•••), f H + f L (- - -), f H f L (—). (a) Unmodulated laser heating, detection by laser vibrometer, (b) modulated laser heating, detection by laser vibrometer, and (c) modulated laser heating, detection by in-contact accelerometer. The amplitudes of the mixed frequencies in (b) and (c) are multiplied by 4 and 2, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the photoacoustic signal amplitude on the relative position between the common focus spot of the heating and the sound generating laser beams and the crack at frequencies f H (∆), f H + 2 f L (squares), and f H 2 f L (circles). Detection is accomplished by an optical deflectometer.

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