Abstract

A novel (to the best of our knowledge) liquid level sensor based on multimode interference (MMI) effects is proposed and demonstrated. By using a multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding, known as no-core fiber, liquids around the MMF modify the self-imaging properties of the MMI device and the liquid level can be detected. We show that the sensor exhibits a highly linear response with the sensing range and multiplexed operations easily controlled by just modifying the length of the no-core fiber. At the same time, we can measure the refractive index of the liquid based on the maximum peak wavelength shift. We can also use the sensor for continuous and discrete liquid level sensing applications, thus providing a liquid level sensor that is inexpensive with a very simple fabrication process.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (1)

2008 (1)

P. Nath, P. Datta, and K. Ch. Sarma, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. Lomer, A. Quintela, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Zubia, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Chandani and N. A. F. Jaeger, Opt. Eng. 46, 114401(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

F. Perez-Ocon, M. Rubino, J. M. Abril, P. Casanova, and J. A. Martinez, Sens. Actuators A 125, 124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Bottacini, N. Burani, M. Foroni, F. Poli, and S. Selleri, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 520 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

I. K. Ilev and R. W. Waynant, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2551(1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

F. N. Toth, G. C. M. Meijer, and M. van-der-Lee, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 644 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Raatikainen, I. Kassamakov, R. Kakanakov, and M. Luukkala, Sens. Actuators A 58, 93 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Northway, N. H. Hancock, and T. Tran-Cong, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

K. Iwamoto and I. Kamata, Appl. Opt. 31, 51 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wang, M. F. Gunber, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Sens. Actuators A 35, 161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abril, J. M.

F. Perez-Ocon, M. Rubino, J. M. Abril, P. Casanova, and J. A. Martinez, Sens. Actuators A 125, 124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Antonio-Lopez, J. E.

Bottacini, M.

M. Bottacini, N. Burani, M. Foroni, F. Poli, and S. Selleri, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 520 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burani, N.

M. Bottacini, N. Burani, M. Foroni, F. Poli, and S. Selleri, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 520 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Casanova, P.

F. Perez-Ocon, M. Rubino, J. M. Abril, P. Casanova, and J. A. Martinez, Sens. Actuators A 125, 124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Castillo-Guzman, A.

Chandani, S. M.

S. M. Chandani and N. A. F. Jaeger, Opt. Eng. 46, 114401(2007).
[CrossRef]

Claus, R. O.

A. Wang, M. F. Gunber, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Sens. Actuators A 35, 161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Datta, P.

P. Nath, P. Datta, and K. Ch. Sarma, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foroni, M.

M. Bottacini, N. Burani, M. Foroni, F. Poli, and S. Selleri, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 520 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gunber, M. F.

A. Wang, M. F. Gunber, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Sens. Actuators A 35, 161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hancock, N. H.

B. W. Northway, N. H. Hancock, and T. Tran-Cong, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ilev, I. K.

I. K. Ilev and R. W. Waynant, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2551(1999).
[CrossRef]

Iwamoto, K.

Jaeger, N. A. F.

S. M. Chandani and N. A. F. Jaeger, Opt. Eng. 46, 114401(2007).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

Kakanakov, R.

P. Raatikainen, I. Kassamakov, R. Kakanakov, and M. Luukkala, Sens. Actuators A 58, 93 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kamata, I.

Kassamakov, I.

P. Raatikainen, I. Kassamakov, R. Kakanakov, and M. Luukkala, Sens. Actuators A 58, 93 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khaliq, S.

LiKamWa, P.

Lomer, M.

M. Lomer, A. Quintela, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Zubia, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Amo, M.

M. Lomer, A. Quintela, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Zubia, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Higuera, J. M.

M. Lomer, A. Quintela, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Zubia, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luukkala, M.

P. Raatikainen, I. Kassamakov, R. Kakanakov, and M. Luukkala, Sens. Actuators A 58, 93 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, J. A.

F. Perez-Ocon, M. Rubino, J. M. Abril, P. Casanova, and J. A. Martinez, Sens. Actuators A 125, 124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

May-Arrioja, D. A.

Meijer, G. C. M.

F. N. Toth, G. C. M. Meijer, and M. van-der-Lee, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 644 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, K. A.

A. Wang, M. F. Gunber, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Sens. Actuators A 35, 161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nath, P.

P. Nath, P. Datta, and K. Ch. Sarma, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Northway, B. W.

B. W. Northway, N. H. Hancock, and T. Tran-Cong, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Ocon, F.

F. Perez-Ocon, M. Rubino, J. M. Abril, P. Casanova, and J. A. Martinez, Sens. Actuators A 125, 124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poli, F.

M. Bottacini, N. Burani, M. Foroni, F. Poli, and S. Selleri, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 520 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quintela, A.

M. Lomer, A. Quintela, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Zubia, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raatikainen, P.

P. Raatikainen, I. Kassamakov, R. Kakanakov, and M. Luukkala, Sens. Actuators A 58, 93 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rubino, M.

F. Perez-Ocon, M. Rubino, J. M. Abril, P. Casanova, and J. A. Martinez, Sens. Actuators A 125, 124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sarma, K. Ch.

P. Nath, P. Datta, and K. Ch. Sarma, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Selleri, S.

M. Bottacini, N. Burani, M. Foroni, F. Poli, and S. Selleri, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 520 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Selvas-Aguilar, R.

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

Toth, F. N.

F. N. Toth, G. C. M. Meijer, and M. van-der-Lee, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 644 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tran-Cong, T.

B. W. Northway, N. H. Hancock, and T. Tran-Cong, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Udd, E.

E. Udd, Fiber Optic Sensors: An Introduction for Engineers and Scientists (Wiley, 2006).

van-der-Lee, M.

F. N. Toth, G. C. M. Meijer, and M. van-der-Lee, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 644 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

A. Wang, M. F. Gunber, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Sens. Actuators A 35, 161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Waynant, R. W.

I. K. Ilev and R. W. Waynant, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2551(1999).
[CrossRef]

Zubia, J.

M. Lomer, A. Quintela, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Zubia, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

F. N. Toth, G. C. M. Meijer, and M. van-der-Lee, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 644 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

M. Lomer, A. Quintela, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Zubia, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Northway, N. H. Hancock, and T. Tran-Cong, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (2)

P. Nath, P. Datta, and K. Ch. Sarma, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1982 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Bottacini, N. Burani, M. Foroni, F. Poli, and S. Selleri, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 520 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. M. Chandani and N. A. F. Jaeger, Opt. Eng. 46, 114401(2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

I. K. Ilev and R. W. Waynant, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2551(1999).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (3)

F. Perez-Ocon, M. Rubino, J. M. Abril, P. Casanova, and J. A. Martinez, Sens. Actuators A 125, 124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Wang, M. F. Gunber, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Sens. Actuators A 35, 161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Raatikainen, I. Kassamakov, R. Kakanakov, and M. Luukkala, Sens. Actuators A 58, 93 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. Udd, Fiber Optic Sensors: An Introduction for Engineers and Scientists (Wiley, 2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the fiber-optic liquid level sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Sensor response for ethylene glycol operating at a peak wavelength of 1484 nm and (b) liquid level sensing for liquids with different refractive indices.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Sensor response for ethylene glycol operating at a peak wavelength of 1524 nm and (b) sensor response for ethylene glycol operating at the eighth self-image.

Equations (2)

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λ 0 = 4 n MMF D MMF 2 L ,
λ 0 = 4 n MMF n D MMF n 2 L ( L n L ) + 4 n MMF D MMF 2 L ( L 0 L ) ,

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