Abstract

We introduce a new technique, spectral contrast imaging microscopy (SCIM), for super-resolution microscopic imaging. Based on a novel contrast mechanism that encodes each local spatial frequency with a corresponding optical wavelength, SCIM provides a real-time high-resolution spectral contrast microscopic image with superior contrast. We show that two microscopic objects, separated by a distance smaller than the diffraction limit of the optical system, can be spatially resolved in the SCIM image as different colors. Results with numerical simulation and experiments using a high-resolution United States Air Force target are presented. The ability of SCIM for imaging biological cells is also demonstrated.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, Science 315, 1699 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sheppard, Micron 38, 165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. G. Gustafsson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 13081(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

S. W. Hell, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1347 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

Alexandrov, S. A.

Calabuig, A.

Chen, Z.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

Choi, Y.

Dasari, R. R.

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, Science 315, 1699 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di, J. L.

Fang-Yen, C.

Feld, M. S.

Ferreira, C.

Garcia, J.

Guo, W.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustafsson, M. G.

M. G. Gustafsson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 13081(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutzler, T.

Hell, S. W.

S. W. Hell, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1347 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, T. R.

Hong, M.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Humphry, M. J.

Hung, Y. J.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, Science 315, 1699 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, A.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M.

Knuttel, A.

Li, L.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Losa, G. A.

T. F. Nonnenmacher, G. A. Losa, and E. R. Weibel, Fractals in Biology and Medicine (Birkhäuser Verlag, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Luk’yanchuk, B.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maiden, A. M.

Mico, V.

Nonnenmacher, T. F.

T. F. Nonnenmacher, G. A. Losa, and E. R. Weibel, Fractals in Biology and Medicine (Birkhäuser Verlag, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Rodenburg, J. M.

Sampson, D. D.

Schmitt, J. M.

Sheppard, C.

C. Sheppard, Micron 38, 165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, Science 315, 1699 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, W. W.

Sung, Y. J.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weibel, E. R.

T. F. Nonnenmacher, G. A. Losa, and E. R. Weibel, Fractals in Biology and Medicine (Birkhäuser Verlag, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X. B.

Zalevsky, Z.

Zhang, F. C.

Zhao, J. L.

J. Opt. A

S. A. Alexandrov and D. D. Sampson, J. Opt. A 10, 025304(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Micron

C. Sheppard, Micron 38, 165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol.

S. W. Hell, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1347 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

M. G. Gustafsson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 13081(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, Science 315, 1699 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

T. F. Nonnenmacher, G. A. Losa, and E. R. Weibel, Fractals in Biology and Medicine (Birkhäuser Verlag, 1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of spectral contrast imaging (θ is the illumination angle, and α is the scattering angle).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerical simulation: (a) object (three element of Group 9 of HR-Group target), (b) conventional bright-field image, NA = 0.05 , (c), (d) SCIM images for (c) y- and (d) x-oriented subelements, NA = 0.05 , and (e), (f) corresponding cross-sectional intensity distributions for the SCIM images, where each wavelength is represented with the corresponding color: 560 nm (yellow), 499 nm (green), and 444 nm (blue), and for the conventional image (black curve) in the image plane along the y direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results: (a) high-resolution ( NA = 0.5 ) image of object (Group 9 of the HR-USAF target); (b) conventional image, NA = 0.05 ; (c), (d) SCIM images ( NA = 0.05 ) for (c) y- and (d) x-oriented subelements. The scale bar is 4 μm . The color bar represents dominant wavelengths (λ) and corresponding spatial frequencies ( ν s ) of the three-bar structure for each subelement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microscopic images ( NA = 0.5 ) of unstained HeLa cell with three different contrast mechanisms: (a) bright-field image, (b) phase-contrast image, (c) SCIM image. The scale bar is 4 μm .

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