The method allows retrieval of the absorbance of a sample without the need for a reference measurement. The method measures the dynamic variation of frequency resolution as the waveform is being acquired. In terahertz wave time-domain spectroscopy, the frequency resolution increases as the temporal window increases. Therefore, narrow absorption peaks will appear in the spectrum when the temporal window is long enough to resolve the peak. By measuring the dynamic values of each frequency component at specific points in time, a reference value and a peak value are extracted and, hence, the self-referenced is achieved. In addition, the method provides a mechanism to remove the effects of echoes, which enables arbitrary temporal window length and, thus, achieves high-resolution frequency. Examples of extraction of the water vapor lines and resonant features in gas and semiconductors are demonstrated in transmission and reflection geometries.
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