Abstract

We fabricate fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in microfibers (MFs) using focused ion beam milling technique. By periodically etching 100nm-depth grooves on the surface of silica MFs with diameters less than 2μm, evident grating features with transmission dip up to 15dB are obtained. Because of the high-index contrast of the gratings structure, the length of the microfiber Bragg grating (MFBG) can be reduced to 500μm level. Using a 518μm-length 1.8μm-diameter MFBG, we also demonstrate sensitivity up to 660nm per refractive index unit (RIU) for refractive index (RI) sensing. The highly compact MFBGs demonstrated here may serve as low-dimensional building blocks for miniaturized photonic components and devices.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (3)

2009 (3)

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. M. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 107(2009).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong and M. Sumetsky, Subwavelength and Nanometer Diameter Optical Fibers (Zhejiang University-Springer, 2009).

L. K. Fam and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043813 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (4)

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, Opt. Lett. 32, 2164 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Y. Zhai and L. M. Tong, Opt. Express 15, 13805 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Jiang, Q. H. Song, L. Xu, J. Fu, and L. M. Tong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, Nat. Photonics 1, 303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

2003 (2)

J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and E. Mejia, Appl. Opt. 42, 2278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

F. T. S. Yu and S. Z. Yin, Fiber Optic Sensors (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. J. Rao, Opt. Lasers Eng. 31, 297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263(1997).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Giles, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, New York, 1983).

1974 (1)

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides(Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1974).

Ashcom, J. B.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernini, R.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

Campopiano, S.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

Dulashko, Y.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and A. Hale, Opt. Express 12, 3521 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fam, L. K.

L. K. Fam and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043813 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, X.

Feng, X.

Fini, J. M.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fu, J.

X. S. Jiang, Q. H. Song, L. Xu, J. Fu, and L. M. Tong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giles, C. R.

C. R. Giles, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hakuta, K.

F. L. Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Fam and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043813 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hale, A.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and A. Hale, Opt. Express 12, 3521 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, S. L.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263(1997).
[CrossRef]

Hodzic, V.

Horak, P.

Hu, L. L.

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. Y.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iadicicco, A.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X. S.

X. S. Jiang, Q. H. Song, L. Xu, J. Fu, and L. M. Tong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y. M.

Kien, F. L.

F. L. Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, Nat. Photonics 1, 303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kirchain, R.

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, Nat. Photonics 1, 303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kisil, A. V.

Koizumi, F.

Koukharenko, E.

Kovalenko, A. V.

Kurashov, V. N.

Lee, R. K.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. H.

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. R.

Lin, B.

Lou, J. Y.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, Opt. Express 12, 1025 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, New York, 1983).

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides(Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1974).

Maxwell, I.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, Opt. Express 12, 1025 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mejia, E.

Meltz, G.

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263(1997).
[CrossRef]

Monzon-Hernandez, D.

Murugan, G. S.

Orloff, J.

Rao, Y. J.

Y. J. Rao, Opt. Lasers Eng. 31, 297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Sessions, N. P.

Shen, M. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shum, P.

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, New York, 1983).

Song, Q. H.

X. S. Jiang, Q. H. Song, L. Xu, J. Fu, and L. M. Tong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sumetsky, M.

L. M. Tong and M. Sumetsky, Subwavelength and Nanometer Diameter Optical Fibers (Zhejiang University-Springer, 2009).

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and A. Hale, Opt. Express 12, 3521 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tjin, S. C.

Tong, L. M.

L. M. Tong and M. Sumetsky, Subwavelength and Nanometer Diameter Optical Fibers (Zhejiang University-Springer, 2009).

X. S. Jiang, Q. H. Song, L. Xu, J. Fu, and L. M. Tong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Zhai and L. M. Tong, Opt. Express 15, 13805 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, Opt. Express 12, 1025 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vienne, G.

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villatoro, J.

Wang, D. N.

Wang, G. H.

Wilkinson, J. S.

Xu, F.

Xu, L.

X. S. Jiang, Q. H. Song, L. Xu, J. Fu, and L. M. Tong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yin, S. Z.

F. T. S. Yu and S. Z. Yin, Fiber Optic Sensors (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F. T. S.

F. T. S. Yu and S. Z. Yin, Fiber Optic Sensors (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, G. Y.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, J. J.

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. L.

Zhang, Y.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Jiang, Q. H. Song, L. Xu, J. Fu, and L. M. Tong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263(1997).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Giles, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Hodzic, J. Orloff, and C. C. Davis, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1610 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. J. Rao, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, Nat. Photonics 1, 303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

Y. J. Rao, Opt. Lasers Eng. 31, 297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

L. K. Fam and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043813 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

F. T. S. Yu and S. Z. Yin, Fiber Optic Sensors (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides(Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1974).

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, New York, 1983).

L. M. Tong and M. Sumetsky, Subwavelength and Nanometer Diameter Optical Fibers (Zhejiang University-Springer, 2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a MFBG inscribed on a 1.8 μm -diameter silica MF. (b) Close-up view of the MFBG. (c) Groove profile of the as-fabricated MFBG. The red dashed line is a sine fit of the profile.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of a bent MFBG (inscribed on a 900 nm - diameter silica MF) with a bending radius of 97 μm . Inset, close-up view of the MFBG.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission and reflection spectra of the MFBG fabricated on a 1.8 μm -diameter silica MF. Inset, optical microscope image of the MF and MFBG guiding a 633 nm light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic illustration of light outcoupling from an MFBG using an evanescent coupling technique. (b) Grating-length-dependent transmittance of the 1.8 μm -diameter MFBG. Inset, typical transmission spectra obtained with grating lengths of 86 μm , 206 μm , 348 μm , and 493 μm . (c) Grating-length-dependent transmittance of a 1.3 μm - diameter MFBG. Inset, transmission spectrum of the MFBG with grating-length of 549 μm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the reflection wavelength shift on the ambient RI (black dot line) and the corresponding RI sensitivity (red hollow dot line) of the 1.8 μm -diameter MFBG used for measuring the RI of a glycerin solution.

Equations (1)

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λ B = 2 n eff Λ ,

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