Abstract

We numerically investigate the optical field enhancement based on gap surface plasmon polaritons (GSPPs) that are enhanced by propagating surface waves launched by a circular slit at a metal–dielectric interface. The optical field enhancement originates not only from multiple scattering and coupling of GSPPs in the spacer region between two metal layers but also from propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) launched by a circular plasmonic lens. We find that the combination of the GSPPs and the propagating SPPs launched by the plasmonic lens can achieve extremely strong field confinement, and we find that the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement factor can be up to 1015 at the tip of the equilateral triangular nanostructures. The structure proposed here is expected to find promising applications where strong field enhancement is desired, such as optical sensing with the SERS effect.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009 (6)

J. Jung, T. Sondergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chu and K. B. Crozier, Opt. Lett. 34, 244 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kim and X. Cheng, Opt. Express 17, 17234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. L. Ru and P. G. Etchegoin, Principles of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and Related Plasmonic Effects (Elsevier, 2009).

H. C. Kim, H. Ko, and M. Cheng, Opt. Express 17, 3078(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

X.-M. Qian and S. M. Nie, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 912 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and T. Sodergaard, Opt. Express 15, 10869 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Renger, S. Grafstrom, and L. M. Eng, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 357 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1998).

1997 (2)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667(1997).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

J. Jung, T. Sondergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and T. Sodergaard, Opt. Express 15, 10869 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. E.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, M.

Cheng, X.

Chu, Y.

Crozier, K. B.

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667(1997).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eng, L. M.

J. Renger, S. Grafstrom, and L. M. Eng, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Etchegoin, P. G.

E. C. L. Ru and P. G. Etchegoin, Principles of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and Related Plasmonic Effects (Elsevier, 2009).

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667(1997).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, G.

E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1998).

Gonzalez, M. U.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grafstrom, S.

J. Renger, S. Grafstrom, and L. M. Eng, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hao, E.

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 357 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiller, J. M.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hugonin, J. P.

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667(1997).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J.

J. Jung, T. Sondergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. C.

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667(1997).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667(1997).
[CrossRef]

Ko, H.

Krenn, J. R.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Lerman, G. M.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 14, 5664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez-Tejeira, F.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, S. M.

X.-M. Qian and S. M. Nie, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 912 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1998).

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667(1997).
[CrossRef]

Pikus, Y.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, X.-M.

X.-M. Qian and S. M. Nie, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 912 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radko, I. P.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Renger, J.

J. Renger, S. Grafstrom, and L. M. Eng, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rodier, J. C.

Rodrigo, S. G.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ru, E. C. L.

E. C. L. Ru and P. G. Etchegoin, Principles of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and Related Plasmonic Effects (Elsevier, 2009).

Schatz, G. C.

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 357 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sodergaard, T.

Sondergaard, T.

J. Jung, T. Sondergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, J. M.

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 14, 5664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, K. H.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

B. Wang and G. P. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013114(2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. P.

B. Wang and G. P. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013114(2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 14, 5664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667(1997).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q. H.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanai, A.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 14, 5664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang and G. P. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 013114(2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

X.-M. Qian and S. M. Nie, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 912 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 357 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nano Lett. (3)

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. Renger, S. Grafstrom, and L. M. Eng, Phys. Rev. B 76, 045431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Jung, T. Sondergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667(1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1998).

E. C. L. Ru and P. G. Etchegoin, Principles of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and Related Plasmonic Effects (Elsevier, 2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of the proposed nanostructures: (a) cross-sectional view in the x z plane and (b) top-down view in the x y plane (structures are not drawn to the scale).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated effective refractive index n eff and SPP propagation length L spp as functions of dielectric SiO 2 thickness, for (a) the MDA waveguide and (b) the MIM waveguide. The wavelength of the incident light is 785 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated intensities in the (a) and (b)  x y plane and (b) and (d) the x z plane: (a) and (c) show the intensity distribution without the triangular nanostructure, and (b) and (d) show the intensity distribution with the triangular nanostructure. (e) and (f) show the comparison of SERS EFs with and without the triangular nanostructure at the locations indicated by the dashed line and arrow.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of the geometrical parameters of the plasmonic lens on SERS EFs: (a) the radius, (b) the slit width, and (c) the thickness of the plasmonic lens.

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