Low-cost, compact, automated optical microsystems for chemical analysis, such as microflow cytometers for identification of individual biological cells, require monolithically integrated microlenses for focusing in microfluidic channels, to enable high-resolution scattering and fluorescence measurements. The multimode interference device (MMI), which makes use of self-imaging in multimode waveguides, is shown to be a simple and effective alternative to the microlens for microflow cytometry. The MMIs have been designed, realized, and integrated with microfluidic channels in a silica-based glass waveguide material system. Focal spot sizes of for MMIs have been measured at foci as far as into the microfluidic channel.
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