Abstract

We demonstrate apodized fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) inscribed with a point-by-point (PbP) technique. We tailor the grating phase and coupling amplitude through precise control over the longitudinal and transverse positions of each laser-inscribed modification. This method of apodization is facilitated by the highly localized, high-contrast modifications generated by focused IR femtosecond laser inscription. Our technique provides a simple method for the design and implementation of PbP FBGs with complex apodization profiles.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

X. P. Cheng, J. Zhang, P. Shum, M. Tang, and R. F. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1646 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, M. Åslund, A. Fuerbach, S. D. Jackson, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Lett. 32, 2804(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 34, 800 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Electron. Lett. 29, 1668 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Electron. Lett. 29, 1668 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Åslund, M.

Barcelos, S.

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Electron. Lett. 29, 1668 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Callan, J. P.

Cheng, X. P.

X. P. Cheng, J. Zhang, P. Shum, M. Tang, and R. F. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1646 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cole, M. J.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 34, 800 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dubov, M.

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Durkin, M. K.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 34, 800 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, R. J.

Fuerbach, A.

Glezer, E. N.

Goto, R.

Her, T. H.

Hill, K. O.

B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Electron. Lett. 29, 1668 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

Ibsen, M.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 34, 800 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

Johnson, D. C.

B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Electron. Lett. 29, 1668 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jovanovic, N.

Khrushchev, I.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khrushchev, I. Y.

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 34, 800 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. H.

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Electron. Lett. 29, 1668 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Milosavljevic, M.

Nolte, S.

Shum, P.

X. P. Cheng, J. Zhang, P. Shum, M. Tang, and R. F. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1646 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steel, M. J.

Tang, M.

X. P. Cheng, J. Zhang, P. Shum, M. Tang, and R. F. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1646 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

Tünnermann, A.

Williams, R. J.

Withford, M. J.

Wu, R. F.

X. P. Cheng, J. Zhang, P. Shum, M. Tang, and R. F. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1646 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

X. P. Cheng, J. Zhang, P. Shum, M. Tang, and R. F. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1646 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (6)

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Electron. Lett. 29, 1668 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, I. Y. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 41, 176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 34, 800 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. P. Cheng, J. Zhang, P. Shum, M. Tang, and R. F. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1646 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the Gaussian apodization technique: a linear translation of focus across the core produces a Gaussian apodization profile. Inset, micrograph of a PbP FBG in SMF-28e fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflection spectrum of a Gaussian- apodized FBG and a comparable uniform FBG written with similar inscription parameters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Coupling amplitude (κ) profile (black curve) and translation function (red curve) for a sinc-apodized PbP grating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured reflection spectrum of the sinc-apodized grating (solid black curve), target spectrum based on κ ( z ) shown in Fig. 3 (solid red curve), simulated spectrum of the fabricated grating (dotted blue curve), and modeled spectrum of a uniform FBG (dashed green curve).

Equations (2)

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| κ ( z ) | = κ 0 exp [ ( 4 x ( z ) / w ) 2 ] ,
x ( z ) = w 4 ln | sinc ( 2 π z N 0 / L ) | ,

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