Abstract

Although single cone receptors have been imaged in vivo, to our knowledge there has been no observation of rods in the living normal eye. Using an adaptive optics ophthalmoscope and post processing, evidence of a rod mosaic was observed at 5° and 10° eccentricities in the horizontal temporal retina. For four normal human subjects, small structures were observed between the larger cones and were observed repeatedly at the same locations on different days, and with varying wavelengths. Image analysis gave spacings that agree well with rod measurements from histological data.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

J. J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, and D. R. Williams, Vision Res. 48, 2564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, J. Comp. Neurol. 5, 632 (2005).

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Lin, J. Christou, and D. R. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2598 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Christou, J. Plandowski, J. Enoch, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2794 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1997 (2)

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, Health Phys. 73, 539 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

C. A. Curcio, N. E. Medeiros, and C. L. Millican, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 1236 (1996).

1994 (1)

A. G. Bennett, A. G. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232, 361 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. B. Jonas, U. Schneider, and G. O. H. Naumann, Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 230, 505 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1985 (2)

M. F. Land and A. W. Snyder, Vision Res. 25, 1519 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Jagger, Vision Res. 25, 729 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

K. R. Alexander and G. A. Fishman, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 68, 561 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

M. Hollins and M. Alpern, J. Gen. Physiol. 62, 430 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

W. A. H. Rushton and G. H. Henry, Vision Res. 8, 617 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1953 (1)

H. W. Babcock, Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 65, 229 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, K. R.

K. R. Alexander and G. A. Fishman, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 68, 561 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alpern, M.

M. Hollins and M. Alpern, J. Gen. Physiol. 62, 430 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babcock, H. W.

H. W. Babcock, Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 65, 229 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, A. G.

A. G. Bennett, A. G. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232, 361 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M. C. W.

Carroll, J.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, J. Comp. Neurol. 5, 632 (2005).

Carroll, J. J.

J. J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, and D. R. Williams, Vision Res. 48, 2564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, J. Comp. Neurol. 5, 632 (2005).

Choi, S. S.

J. J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, and D. R. Williams, Vision Res. 48, 2564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Lin, J. Christou, and D. R. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2598 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Christou, J. Plandowski, J. Enoch, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2794 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Christou, J.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Lin, J. Christou, and D. R. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2598 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Christou, J. Plandowski, J. Enoch, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2794 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, N. E. Medeiros, and C. L. Millican, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 1236 (1996).

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dainty, J. C.

J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena(Springer-Verlag, 1984), Chap. 7.

Delori, F. C.

Doble, N.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Lin, J. Christou, and D. R. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2598 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, J. Comp. Neurol. 5, 632 (2005).

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Christou, J. Plandowski, J. Enoch, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2794 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, W. J.

Edgar, D. F.

A. G. Bennett, A. G. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232, 361 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Enoch, J.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Christou, J. Plandowski, J. Enoch, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2794 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Enoch, J. M.

J. M. Enoch and F. L. Tobey, Vertebrate Photoreceptor Optics, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1981).

Fishman, G. A.

K. R. Alexander and G. A. Fishman, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 68, 561 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, G. H.

W. A. H. Rushton and G. H. Henry, Vision Res. 8, 617 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herbert, T. J.

Hofer, H. J.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, J. Comp. Neurol. 5, 632 (2005).

Hollins, M.

M. Hollins and M. Alpern, J. Gen. Physiol. 62, 430 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jagger, W. S.

W. S. Jagger, Vision Res. 25, 729 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonas, J. B.

J. B. Jonas, U. Schneider, and G. O. H. Naumann, Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 230, 505 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Land, M. F.

M. F. Land and A. W. Snyder, Vision Res. 25, 1519 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

Lin, J.

Medeiros, N. E.

C. A. Curcio, N. E. Medeiros, and C. L. Millican, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 1236 (1996).

Miller, D. T.

Millican, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, N. E. Medeiros, and C. L. Millican, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 1236 (1996).

Naumann, G. O. H.

J. B. Jonas, U. Schneider, and G. O. H. Naumann, Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 230, 505 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pflibsen, K. P.

Plandowski, J.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Christou, J. Plandowski, J. Enoch, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2794 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, N. M.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, J. Comp. Neurol. 5, 632 (2005).

Queener, H.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Rudnicka, A. G.

A. G. Bennett, A. G. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232, 361 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton and G. H. Henry, Vision Res. 8, 617 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, U.

J. B. Jonas, U. Schneider, and G. O. H. Naumann, Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 230, 505 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, A. W.

M. F. Land and A. W. Snyder, Vision Res. 25, 1519 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tobey, F. L.

J. M. Enoch and F. L. Tobey, Vertebrate Photoreceptor Optics, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1981).

Williams, D. R.

J. J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, and D. R. Williams, Vision Res. 48, 2564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Lin, J. Christou, and D. R. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2598 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, J. Comp. Neurol. 5, 632 (2005).

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Christou, J. Plandowski, J. Enoch, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2794 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

K. R. Alexander and G. A. Fishman, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 68, 561 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (2)

J. B. Jonas, U. Schneider, and G. O. H. Naumann, Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 230, 505 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Bennett, A. G. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232, 361 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Health Phys. (1)

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, Health Phys. 73, 539 (1997).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (2)

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Christou, J. Plandowski, J. Enoch, and D. R. Williams, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2794 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, N. E. Medeiros, and C. L. Millican, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 1236 (1996).

J. Comp. Neurol. (2)

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, J. Comp. Neurol. 5, 632 (2005).

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

M. Hollins and M. Alpern, J. Gen. Physiol. 62, 430 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific (1)

H. W. Babcock, Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 65, 229 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (4)

M. F. Land and A. W. Snyder, Vision Res. 25, 1519 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Jagger, Vision Res. 25, 729 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. H. Rushton and G. H. Henry, Vision Res. 8, 617 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, and D. R. Williams, Vision Res. 48, 2564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. M. Enoch and F. L. Tobey, Vertebrate Photoreceptor Optics, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1981).

American National Standard for Ophthalmics, “Methods for Reporting Optical Aberrations of Eyes,” ANSI Z80.28-2000 (American National Standards Institute, 2000).

J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena(Springer-Verlag, 1984), Chap. 7.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Retinal images for subject N1, using 650 nm , 10 ° TR, and field of view (FOV) of 28 × 28 μm . (a) Dark subtracted, single image frame; (b) deconvolved and filtered image of (a); (c) background subtracted, registered sum of five images; (d) deconvolved image of (c). Rods are observed between the much larger cones, with the same features being observed in the single frame, registered, and enhanced images. The rod c–c spacing of 3.2 ± 0.5 μm agrees well with values from histology. The cone c–c spacing was 9.1 ± 0.9 μm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Enhanced retinal images for subject N2, using 650 nm and FOV of 28 × 84 μm , registered sum of five images. (a) 5 ° TR, c–c cone and rod spacings of 9.3 ± 1.7 and 3.1 ± 0.6 μm , respectively; (b) 10 ° TR, c–c cone and rod spacings of 11.7 ± 1.1 and 3.2 ± 0.3 μm , respectively; (c) PSD from the full 1 ° image at 5 ° (gray curve) and 10 ° (black curve). The cones showed a decrease in spatial frequency with increasing eccentricity giving peak spatial frequencies of 30 and 24 c / deg at 5 ° and 10 ° , respectively. The rods showed a similar spatial frequency peak of around 92 c / deg at each retinal location. As expected from histology, the rods’ spacing changes only slightly with increasing eccentricity [10, 11].

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Axial Lengths and the AO Image Scale

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Measured Photoreceptor c–c Spacing and Histological Data [10, 11]

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