Abstract

Owing to the low-loss and high refractive index variations derived from the basic building block of bone structure, we, for the first time to our knowledge, demonstrate coherent random lasing action originated from the bone structure infiltrated with laser dye, revealing that bone tissue is an ideal biological material for random lasing. Our numerical simulation shows that random lasers are extremely sensitive to subtle structural changes even at nanoscales and can potentially be an excellent tool for probing nanoscale structural alterations in real time as a novel spectroscopic modality.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. S. Letokhov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1967) V. S. Letokhov, [Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968)].
  2. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Pradhan and N. Kumar, Phys. Rev. B 50, 9644 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Phys. Rev. B 71, 045205 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. H. Wu and H. Cao, Opt. Lett. 32, 3089 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. L. van der Molen, P. Zijlstra, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Opt. Lett. 31, 1432 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Siddique, Y. Li, Q. Z. Wang, and A. A. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. O. Ritchie, M. J. Buehler, and P. Hansma, Phys. Today 62(6), 41 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Ritchie, M. J. Buehler, and P. Hansma, Phys. Today 62(6), 41 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

K. L. van der Molen, P. Zijlstra, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Opt. Lett. 31, 1432 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Phys. Rev. B 71, 045205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Siddique, Y. Li, Q. Z. Wang, and A. A. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Pradhan and N. Kumar, Phys. Rev. B 50, 9644 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

V. S. Letokhov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1967) V. S. Letokhov, [Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968)].

V. S. Letokhov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1967) V. S. Letokhov, [Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968)].

Alfano, A. A.

M. Siddique, Y. Li, Q. Z. Wang, and A. A. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baughman, R. H.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buehler, M. J.

R. O. Ritchie, M. J. Buehler, and P. Hansma, Phys. Today 62(6), 41 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

X. H. Wu and H. Cao, Opt. Lett. 32, 3089 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dietz, R. J. B.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fallert, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, S. V.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hansma, P.

R. O. Ritchie, M. J. Buehler, and P. Hansma, Phys. Today 62(6), 41 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kalt, H.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klingshirn, C.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, N.

P. Pradhan and N. Kumar, Phys. Rev. B 50, 9644 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

Lawandy, N. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1967) V. S. Letokhov, [Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968)].

V. S. Letokhov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1967) V. S. Letokhov, [Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968)].

Li, Y.

M. Siddique, Y. Li, Q. Z. Wang, and A. A. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mosk, A. P.

Polson, R. C.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Phys. Rev. B 71, 045205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, P.

P. Pradhan and N. Kumar, Phys. Rev. B 50, 9644 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, R. O.

R. O. Ritchie, M. J. Buehler, and P. Hansma, Phys. Today 62(6), 41 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sartor, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Siddique, M.

M. Siddique, Y. Li, Q. Z. Wang, and A. A. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q.

Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van der Molen, K. L.

Vardeny, Z. V.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Phys. Rev. B 71, 045205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. Z.

M. Siddique, Y. Li, Q. Z. Wang, and A. A. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. H.

Xiao, S.

Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zijlstra, P.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. S. Wiersma, Nat. Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Siddique, Y. Li, Q. Z. Wang, and A. A. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Song, L. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Phys. Rev. B 71, 045205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Pradhan and N. Kumar, Phys. Rev. B 50, 9644 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Song, L. Liu, S. Xiao, X. Zhou, W. Wang, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

R. O. Ritchie, M. J. Buehler, and P. Hansma, Phys. Today 62(6), 41 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

V. S. Letokhov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1967) V. S. Letokhov, [Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968)].

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Emission spectrum of the dye solution (Rhodamine 800 in ethanol) without the bone specimen. (b) Emission spectra of random lasers from the bone tissue ( thickness = 200 μ m ) infiltrated with Rhodamine 800 at different positions. (c) Emission spectrum of random lasers obtained from a thick bone specimen ( thickness = 5   mm ) infused with Rhodamine 800 in DMSO. (d) Dependence of the output laser intensity on the pump power. Inset: SEM image of the bone tissue. The scale bar is 1 μ m .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic picture of a representative area of the simulation structure. (b) Eigenvalues in the quasi-one-dimensional random structures. (c1) The field distribution of a randomly selected high Q resonant mode at κ = 9.1378 i 0.0099 [ μ m 1 ] . (c2) The field distribution of the highest Q resonant mode at κ = 9.0139 i 0.0023 [ μ m 1 ] . (c3) After slightly increasing the thickness of one single layer by 10 nm while keeping other layers the same, the field distribution of the highest Q resonant mode at κ = 9.0115 i 0.0024 [ μ m 1 ] . Although its field pattern is almost the same as in (c2), surprisingly, the resonant wavelength was significantly shifted by 0.2   nm .

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