Abstract

We demonstrate an ultrafast optical recording system based on a novel optical beam deflection technique. An optical pump temporarily creates an array of prisms that deflect an optical signal beam within a GaAs/AlGaAs planar waveguide. The fabricated device yielded, to our knowledge, the fastest sustained optical deflection reported to date and was used to create spatial representations of ultrafast temporal waveforms. A conventional camera was then used to record single-shot waveforms with a 2.5 ps resolution over a 50 ps record with a dynamic range in excess of 3000:1. Through further development, this all-optical streak camera could provide insight into previously unmeasurable phenomena in many fields.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2008

M. A. Foster, S. Reza, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 456, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jarrahi, R. Fabian, W. Pease, D. A. B. Miller, and T. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 014106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Hisatake, K. Tada, and T. Nagatsuma, Opt. Express 16, 21753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 1, 411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Hübner, H. M. van Driel, and J. S. Aitchison, Opt. Lett. 30, 3168 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hisatake, K. Shibuya, and T. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Lowry, C. Bennett, S. Vernon, R. Stewart, R. Welty, J. Heebner, O. Landen, and P. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 43, 2841 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, and S. Tang, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 1217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. V. Bennett and B. H. Kolner, Opt. Lett. 24, 783 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Walden, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1994

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 111, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

I. Golub, Opt. Commun. 94, 143 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. del Alamo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1978

D. J. Bradley, S. F. Bryant, J. R. Taylor, and W. Sibbett, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 215 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aitchison, J. S.

Alfano, R. R.

Alton, J.

S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 1, 411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

An, D.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, and S. Tang, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 1217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 1, 411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C. P. J.

I. Jovanovic, B. C. Haefner, M. Shverdin, M. Taranowski, and C. P. J. Barty, in Proceedings of CLEO/QELS (2007), paper JThD137.

Beere, H. E.

S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 1, 411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bell, P.

M. Lowry, C. Bennett, S. Vernon, R. Stewart, R. Welty, J. Heebner, O. Landen, and P. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. del Alamo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C.

M. Lowry, C. Bennett, S. Vernon, R. Stewart, R. Welty, J. Heebner, O. Landen, and P. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. V.

Bradley, D. J.

D. J. Bradley, S. F. Bryant, J. R. Taylor, and W. Sibbett, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 215 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, S. F.

D. J. Bradley, S. F. Bryant, J. R. Taylor, and W. Sibbett, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 215 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calligaro, M.

S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 1, 411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. Y.

Chen, R. T.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, and S. Tang, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 1217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Darwish, A. M.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 111, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

De Rossi, A.

S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 1, 411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

del Alamo, J. A.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. del Alamo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dhillon, S.

S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 1, 411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fabian, R.

M. Jarrahi, R. Fabian, W. Pease, D. A. B. Miller, and T. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 014106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

M. A. Foster, S. Reza, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 456, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedrich, L.

Gaeta, A. L.

M. A. Foster, S. Reza, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 456, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geraghty, D. F.

M. A. Foster, S. Reza, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 456, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golub, I.

I. Golub, Opt. Commun. 94, 143 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Haefner, B. C.

I. Jovanovic, B. C. Haefner, M. Shverdin, M. Taranowski, and C. P. J. Barty, in Proceedings of CLEO/QELS (2007), paper JThD137.

Hall, K. L.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 111, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, C. J.

Heebner, J.

M. Lowry, C. Bennett, S. Vernon, R. Stewart, R. Welty, J. Heebner, O. Landen, and P. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hisatake, S.

S. Hisatake, K. Tada, and T. Nagatsuma, Opt. Express 16, 21753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hisatake, K. Shibuya, and T. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hübner, J.

Iaconis, C.

Ippen, E. P.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 111, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jang, C.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, and S. Tang, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 1217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jarrahi, M.

M. Jarrahi, R. Fabian, W. Pease, D. A. B. Miller, and T. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 014106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jovanovic, I.

I. Jovanovic, B. C. Haefner, M. Shverdin, M. Taranowski, and C. P. J. Barty, in Proceedings of CLEO/QELS (2007), paper JThD137.

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, A. E.

Kim, J.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, and S. Tang, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 1217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

S. Hisatake, K. Shibuya, and T. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kolner, B. H.

Landen, O.

M. Lowry, C. Bennett, S. Vernon, R. Stewart, R. Welty, J. Heebner, O. Landen, and P. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. H.

M. Jarrahi, R. Fabian, W. Pease, D. A. B. Miller, and T. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 014106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 111, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lipson, M.

M. A. Foster, S. Reza, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 456, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowry, M.

M. Lowry, C. Bennett, S. Vernon, R. Stewart, R. Welty, J. Heebner, O. Landen, and P. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, and S. Tang, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 1217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maki, J. J.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, and S. Tang, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 1217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Millar, P.

Miller, D. A. B.

M. Jarrahi, R. Fabian, W. Pease, D. A. B. Miller, and T. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 014106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, G.

G. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 43, 2841 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moses, E. I.

G. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 43, 2841 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nagatsuma, T.

Pease, W.

M. Jarrahi, R. Fabian, W. Pease, D. A. B. Miller, and T. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 014106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reza, S.

M. A. Foster, S. Reza, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 456, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritchie, D. A.

S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 1, 411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shibuya, K.

S. Hisatake, K. Shibuya, and T. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shverdin, M.

I. Jovanovic, B. C. Haefner, M. Shverdin, M. Taranowski, and C. P. J. Barty, in Proceedings of CLEO/QELS (2007), paper JThD137.

Sibbett, W.

D. J. Bradley, S. F. Bryant, J. R. Taylor, and W. Sibbett, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 215 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirtori, C.

S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 1, 411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. del Alamo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

Stewart, R.

M. Lowry, C. Bennett, S. Vernon, R. Stewart, R. Welty, J. Heebner, O. Landen, and P. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, and S. Tang, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 1217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Swartzlander, G. A.

Taboada, J. M.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, and S. Tang, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 1217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tada, K.

Tang, S.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, and S. Tang, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 1217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taranowski, M.

I. Jovanovic, B. C. Haefner, M. Shverdin, M. Taranowski, and C. P. J. Barty, in Proceedings of CLEO/QELS (2007), paper JThD137.

Taylor, J. R.

D. J. Bradley, S. F. Bryant, J. R. Taylor, and W. Sibbett, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 215 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trebino, R.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

M. A. Foster, S. Reza, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 456, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Driel, H. M.

Vernon, S.

M. Lowry, C. Bennett, S. Vernon, R. Stewart, R. Welty, J. Heebner, O. Landen, and P. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walden, R. H.

R. H. Walden, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Welty, R.

M. Lowry, C. Bennett, S. Vernon, R. Stewart, R. Welty, J. Heebner, O. Landen, and P. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wuest, C. R.

G. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 43, 2841 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Zhou, Q.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, and S. Tang, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 1217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Hisatake, K. Shibuya, and T. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Jarrahi, R. Fabian, W. Pease, D. A. B. Miller, and T. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 014106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. del Alamo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

R. H. Walden, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Photonics

S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 1, 411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. A. Foster, S. Reza, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Nature 456, 81 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

I. Golub, Opt. Commun. 94, 143 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 111, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham)

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, and S. Tang, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 1217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 43, 2841 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

D. J. Bradley, S. F. Bryant, J. R. Taylor, and W. Sibbett, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 215 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lowry, C. Bennett, S. Vernon, R. Stewart, R. Welty, J. Heebner, O. Landen, and P. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

I. Jovanovic, B. C. Haefner, M. Shverdin, M. Taranowski, and C. P. J. Barty, in Proceedings of CLEO/QELS (2007), paper JThD137.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The SLIDER concept. An optical signal propagating in a planar waveguide experiences optically induced deflection. The deflection is caused by a vertically incident pump beam that travels through a serrated transmission mask, acquiring a prism array pattern that is then imprinted in the waveguide core. The prisms persist for the duration of the beam sweep. The varying signal time of flight through the prisms causes a linear mapping of time to angle. The swept beam is then focused onto a camera that records a spatial representation of the temporal signal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of a fabricated SLIDER deflector. Here, the lateral extent of the prisms is 12 mm. The longitudinal pitch of the prism pattern is 60 μ m . In the experiments, a 7-mm-long waveguide section was illuminated. The waveguide structure consists of a GaAs substrate and core, with 24% AlGaAs upper and lower claddings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Free-carrier density dependence of the optical properties of the bulk GaAs waveguide core. Experimental (points) and theoretical (solid line) changes in (a) refractive index and (b) FCA are shown at injected carrier densities varying from 10 17 to 2 × 10 18 cm 3 . The refractive index change was negative.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single-shot recorded SLIDER trace of a test signal consisting of 1   ps impulses separated by 10 ps. The signal was generated by the ring down of a GT cavity with a 22% reflector. The first and second pulses contain 22% and 61% of the energy, respectively; subsequent pulses decay exponentially. Each point of the trace corresponds to a single camera pixel. A temporal resolution of 2.5 ps (FWHM) was maintained over a record of 50 ps. The dynamic range of the measurement was limited by the camera at 3000:1.

Equations (1)

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δ τ = 2   ln   2 λ X / ( π v g w s Δ n ¯ ) .

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