Abstract

We demonstrate an all-terahertz swept-source imaging radar operated at room temperature by using terahertz fibers for radiation delivery and with a terahertz-fiber directional coupler acting as a Michelson interferometer. By taking advantage of the high water reflection contrast in the low terahertz regime and by electrically sweeping at a high speed a terahertz source combined with a fast rotating mirror, we obtained the living object’s distance information with a high image frame rate. Our experiment showed that this fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar could be used in real time to locate concealed moving live objects with high stability.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

2008 (2)

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Lai, H.-C. Chang, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, Opt. Express 16, 2494 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Proc. IEEE 95, 1514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Nazarova, A. P. Shkurinova, V. V. Tuchinb, and O. S. Zhernovayab, Proc. SPIE 6535, 65351J (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C.-L. Pan, J.-L. Kuo, J.-Y. Lu, L.-J. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, Opt. Lett. 32, 1017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 11, 2183 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Biol. Phys. 29, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3667 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

A. G. Stove, Proc. IEEE 139, 343 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. J. Trew, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 27, 8 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, D. D.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Biol. Phys. 29, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baraniuk, R. G.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, 2002).

Castetter, D.

D. Castetter, http://www.microsource-inc.com/yigintro.pdf.

Chang, H. -C.

H.-W. Chen, C.-M. Chiu, C.-H. Lai, J.-L. Kuo, P.-J. Chiang, Y.-J. Hwang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 1489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Lai, H.-C. Chang, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. -W.

Chen, L. -J.

Chen, Y.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Proc. IEEE 95, 1514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, P. -J.

Chiu, C. -M.

Choma, M. A.

Duker, J. S.

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. -Y.

Huang, Y. -R.

Hwang, Y. -J.

Izatt, J. A.

Kao, T. -F.

Karpowicz, N.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Proc. IEEE 95, 1514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. H.

Koch, M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

Kuo, C. -C.

J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, Opt. Express 16, 2494 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Lai, H.-C. Chang, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, J. -L.

Lai, C. -H.

H.-W. Chen, C.-M. Chiu, C.-H. Lai, J.-L. Kuo, P.-J. Chiang, Y.-J. Hwang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 1489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Lai, H.-C. Chang, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. -J.

Li, Y. -T.

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Biol. Phys. 29, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. -B.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Proc. IEEE 95, 1514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J. -Y.

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nazarova, M. M.

M. M. Nazarova, A. P. Shkurinova, V. V. Tuchinb, and O. S. Zhernovayab, Proc. SPIE 6535, 65351J (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neelamani, R.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. -L.

Pepper, M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Biol. Phys. 29, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rudd, J. V.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sarunic, M. V.

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shkurinova, A. P.

M. M. Nazarova, A. P. Shkurinova, V. V. Tuchinb, and O. S. Zhernovayab, Proc. SPIE 6535, 65351J (2007).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stove, A. G.

A. G. Stove, Proc. IEEE 139, 343 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. -K.

Tearney, G. J.

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, 2002).

Trew, R. J.

R. J. Trew, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 27, 8 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tuchinb, V. V.

M. M. Nazarova, A. P. Shkurinova, V. V. Tuchinb, and O. S. Zhernovayab, Proc. SPIE 6535, 65351J (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, V. P.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Biol. Phys. 29, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Biol. Phys. 29, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Zhang, X. -C.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Proc. IEEE 95, 1514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3667 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhernovayab, O. S.

M. M. Nazarova, A. P. Shkurinova, V. V. Tuchinb, and O. S. Zhernovayab, Proc. SPIE 6535, 65351J (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Proc. IEEE 95, 1514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zimdars, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Lai, H.-C. Chang, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

R. J. Trew, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 27, 8 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Biol. Phys. (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, J. Biol. Phys. 29, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3667 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (2)

A. G. Stove, Proc. IEEE 139, 343 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Proc. IEEE 95, 1514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. M. Nazarova, A. P. Shkurinova, V. V. Tuchinb, and O. S. Zhernovayab, Proc. SPIE 6535, 65351J (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. Castetter, http://www.microsource-inc.com/yigintro.pdf.

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, 2002).

IEEE Standard, C95.1–2005, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&amumber=1626482&isnumber=34126.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar. (b) Output frequency of the YTO module as a function of the driving voltage. High linearity can be observed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram for 1D axial scan of a cardboard box. The photograph of the experimental setup is shown on the left. (b) Fourier-transformed interference signal obtained by the detector after one electronic sweep.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar images. The live mouse was at different locations hidden inside an opaque box, as shown in (a) and (b). The radar imaged area corresponded to the fan-shaped region scanned by the rotating mirror. These two radar images were acquired with a time difference of 20 s. The bright spots in the radar images not only reveal the location of the mouse but also show the movement of the mouse from the first floor to the third floor inside the box. The rightmost photographs show the actual locations of the mouse.

Equations (3)

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I = I ref + I sample + 2 I ref I sample   cos ( 2 π ( Δ φ ) ) ,
Δ φ = 2 d λ = 2 d f c ,
f o = d Δ φ d t = 2 d c β .

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