Abstract

Fused-silica microstructural changes associated with localized 10.6μm CO2 laser heating are reported. Spatially resolved shifts in the high-frequency asymmetric stretch transverse-optic phonon mode of SiO2 were measured using confocal Raman microscopy, allowing construction of axial fictive temperature (Tf) maps for various laser-heating conditions. A Fourier conduction-based finite-element model was employed to compute on-axis temperature–time histories, and, in conjunction with a Tool–Narayanaswamy form for structural relaxation, used to fit Tf(z) profiles to extract relaxation parameters. Good agreement between the calculated and measured Tf was found, yielding reasonable values for relaxation time and activation enthalpy in the laser-modified silica.

© 2010 U.S. Government

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    [CrossRef]

2009

B. Kuhn and R. Schadrack, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 1031061 (2009).

N. Shen, M. J. Matthews, J. E. Fair, J. A. Britten, H. T. Nguyen, D. Cooke, S. Elhadj, and S. T. Yang, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

R. Bruning, C. Levelut, A. Faivre, R. LeParc, J. P. Simon, F. Bley, and J. L. Hazemann, Europhys. Lett. 70, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Zhao, J. Sullivan, J. Zayac, and T. D. Bennett, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. D. Bennett and L. Li, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 942 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996

O. Alejos, C. de Francisco, P. Hernandez, K. Bendimya, and J. M. Munoz, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 63, 471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. A. Angell, Science 267, 1924 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

V. Zandian, J. S. Florry, and D. Taylor, Br. Ceram. Trans. J. 90, 59 (1991).

1990

G. W. Scherer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123, 75 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

1983

A. E. Geissberger and F. L. Galeener, Phys. Rev. B 28, 3266 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

F. L. Galeener, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 49, 53 (1982).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Galeener, Solid State Commun. 44, 1037 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1971

O. S. Narayanaswamy, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 491 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

R. Bruckner, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5, 123 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1959

K. L. Wray and T. J. Connolly, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1702 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1953

H. T. Smyth, H. S. Skogen, and W. B. Harsell, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 36, 327 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Alejos, O.

O. Alejos, C. de Francisco, P. Hernandez, K. Bendimya, and J. M. Munoz, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 63, 471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Angell, C. A.

C. A. Angell, Science 267, 1924 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, H. J.

Bendimya, K.

O. Alejos, C. de Francisco, P. Hernandez, K. Bendimya, and J. M. Munoz, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 63, 471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, T. D.

J. Zhao, J. Sullivan, J. Zayac, and T. D. Bennett, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Bennett and L. Li, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 942 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bisson, S. E.

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 1031061 (2009).

Bley, F.

R. Bruning, C. Levelut, A. Faivre, R. LeParc, J. P. Simon, F. Bley, and J. L. Hazemann, Europhys. Lett. 70, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Britten, J. A.

N. Shen, M. J. Matthews, J. E. Fair, J. A. Britten, H. T. Nguyen, D. Cooke, S. Elhadj, and S. T. Yang, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bruckner, R.

R. Bruckner, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5, 123 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bruning, R.

R. Bruning, C. Levelut, A. Faivre, R. LeParc, J. P. Simon, F. Bley, and J. L. Hazemann, Europhys. Lett. 70, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Connolly, T. J.

K. L. Wray and T. J. Connolly, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1702 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, D.

N. Shen, M. J. Matthews, J. E. Fair, J. A. Britten, H. T. Nguyen, D. Cooke, S. Elhadj, and S. T. Yang, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Corle, T. R.

G. S. Kino and T. R. Corle, Confocal Scanning Optical Microscopy and Related Imaging Systems (Academic, 1996).

de Francisco, C.

O. Alejos, C. de Francisco, P. Hernandez, K. Bendimya, and J. M. Munoz, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 63, 471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Draggoo, V. G.

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 1031061 (2009).

Elhadj, S.

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 1031061 (2009).

N. Shen, M. J. Matthews, J. E. Fair, J. A. Britten, H. T. Nguyen, D. Cooke, S. Elhadj, and S. T. Yang, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fair, J. E.

N. Shen, M. J. Matthews, J. E. Fair, J. A. Britten, H. T. Nguyen, D. Cooke, S. Elhadj, and S. T. Yang, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Faivre, A.

R. Bruning, C. Levelut, A. Faivre, R. LeParc, J. P. Simon, F. Bley, and J. L. Hazemann, Europhys. Lett. 70, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Florry, J. S.

V. Zandian, J. S. Florry, and D. Taylor, Br. Ceram. Trans. J. 90, 59 (1991).

Galeener, F. L.

A. E. Geissberger and F. L. Galeener, Phys. Rev. B 28, 3266 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Galeener, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 49, 53 (1982).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Galeener, Solid State Commun. 44, 1037 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Geissberger, A. E.

A. E. Geissberger and F. L. Galeener, Phys. Rev. B 28, 3266 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. R.

Harsell, W. B.

H. T. Smyth, H. S. Skogen, and W. B. Harsell, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 36, 327 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Hazemann, J. L.

R. Bruning, C. Levelut, A. Faivre, R. LeParc, J. P. Simon, F. Bley, and J. L. Hazemann, Europhys. Lett. 70, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, P.

O. Alejos, C. de Francisco, P. Hernandez, K. Bendimya, and J. M. Munoz, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 63, 471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

G. S. Kino and T. R. Corle, Confocal Scanning Optical Microscopy and Related Imaging Systems (Academic, 1996).

Kuhn, B.

B. Kuhn and R. Schadrack, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

LeParc, R.

R. Bruning, C. Levelut, A. Faivre, R. LeParc, J. P. Simon, F. Bley, and J. L. Hazemann, Europhys. Lett. 70, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Levelut, C.

R. Bruning, C. Levelut, A. Faivre, R. LeParc, J. P. Simon, F. Bley, and J. L. Hazemann, Europhys. Lett. 70, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

T. D. Bennett and L. Li, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 942 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, M. J.

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 1031061 (2009).

N. Shen, M. J. Matthews, J. E. Fair, J. A. Britten, H. T. Nguyen, D. Cooke, S. Elhadj, and S. T. Yang, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McLachlan, A. D.

Mendez, E.

Meyer, F. P.

Munoz, J. M.

O. Alejos, C. de Francisco, P. Hernandez, K. Bendimya, and J. M. Munoz, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 63, 471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Narayanaswamy, O. S.

O. S. Narayanaswamy, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 491 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. T.

N. Shen, M. J. Matthews, J. E. Fair, J. A. Britten, H. T. Nguyen, D. Cooke, S. Elhadj, and S. T. Yang, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nowak, K. M.

Ryu, S. R.

S. R. Ryu and M. Tomozawa, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3929 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schadrack, R.

B. Kuhn and R. Schadrack, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, G. W.

G. W. Scherer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123, 75 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shen, N.

N. Shen, M. J. Matthews, J. E. Fair, J. A. Britten, H. T. Nguyen, D. Cooke, S. Elhadj, and S. T. Yang, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J. P.

R. Bruning, C. Levelut, A. Faivre, R. LeParc, J. P. Simon, F. Bley, and J. L. Hazemann, Europhys. Lett. 70, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Skogen, H. S.

H. T. Smyth, H. S. Skogen, and W. B. Harsell, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 36, 327 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, H. T.

H. T. Smyth, H. S. Skogen, and W. B. Harsell, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 36, 327 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, J.

J. Zhao, J. Sullivan, J. Zayac, and T. D. Bennett, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, D.

V. Zandian, J. S. Florry, and D. Taylor, Br. Ceram. Trans. J. 90, 59 (1991).

Tomozawa, M.

S. R. Ryu and M. Tomozawa, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3929 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villarreal, F. J.

Wray, K. L.

K. L. Wray and T. J. Connolly, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1702 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. T.

N. Shen, M. J. Matthews, J. E. Fair, J. A. Britten, H. T. Nguyen, D. Cooke, S. Elhadj, and S. T. Yang, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 1031061 (2009).

Zandian, V.

V. Zandian, J. S. Florry, and D. Taylor, Br. Ceram. Trans. J. 90, 59 (1991).

Zayac, J.

J. Zhao, J. Sullivan, J. Zayac, and T. D. Bennett, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, J. Sullivan, J. Zayac, and T. D. Bennett, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process.

O. Alejos, C. de Francisco, P. Hernandez, K. Bendimya, and J. M. Munoz, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 63, 471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

N. Shen, M. J. Matthews, J. E. Fair, J. A. Britten, H. T. Nguyen, D. Cooke, S. Elhadj, and S. T. Yang, Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Br. Ceram. Trans. J.

V. Zandian, J. S. Florry, and D. Taylor, Br. Ceram. Trans. J. 90, 59 (1991).

Europhys. Lett.

R. Bruning, C. Levelut, A. Faivre, R. LeParc, J. P. Simon, F. Bley, and J. L. Hazemann, Europhys. Lett. 70, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

O. S. Narayanaswamy, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 491 (1971).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Smyth, H. S. Skogen, and W. B. Harsell, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 36, 327 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 1031061 (2009).

K. L. Wray and T. J. Connolly, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1702 (1959).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Bennett and L. Li, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 942 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhao, J. Sullivan, J. Zayac, and T. D. Bennett, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

F. L. Galeener, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 49, 53 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Ryu and M. Tomozawa, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3929 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuhn and R. Schadrack, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Scherer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123, 75 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruckner, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5, 123 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

A. E. Geissberger and F. L. Galeener, Phys. Rev. B 28, 3266 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Science

C. A. Angell, Science 267, 1924 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun.

F. L. Galeener, Solid State Commun. 44, 1037 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. S. Kino and T. R. Corle, Confocal Scanning Optical Microscopy and Related Imaging Systems (Academic, 1996).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured Si–O–Si asymmetric stretch TO-mode frequency shift and fictive temperature as a function of depth for 2 W s and 0.7 W s laser power ramps (symbols), each fit to the relaxation model cited in the text (lines). Experimental error bars are derived from the 95% confidence interval data of the reference [1]. The dashed line indicates the glass manufacturer’s quoted annealing (glass transition) temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Activation enthalpy, relaxation time at 1315 K , and structure factor derived from fits to Eq. (2) as a function of laser-power ramp rate. Error bars shown correspond to the 95% confidence interval of the least-squares fitting.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ C p T t = ( k T ) + Q ,
T f = T 0 t M ( T , T f , τ ) T t d t ,
τ ( T , T f ) = τ 0 exp [ ( Δ h R ) ( x T + 1 x T f ) ] ,

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