Abstract

We optimize speckle variance optical coherence tomography (svOCT) imaging of microvasculature in high and low bulk tissue motion scenarios. To achieve a significant level of image contrast, frame rates must be optimized such that tissue displacement between frames is less than the beam radius. We demonstrate that higher accuracy estimates of speckle variance can enhance the detection of capillaries. These findings are illustrated in vivo by imaging the dorsal window chamber model (low bulk motion). We also show svOCT imaging of the nonstabilized finger (high bulk motion), using optimized imaging parameters, demonstrating better vessel detection than Doppler OCT.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med.  15, 1219 (2009).
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Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

Cense, B.

Chen, Z.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

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Fingler, J.

Foster, S.

V. X. D. Yang, A. Needles, D. Vray, S. Lo, B. C. Wilson, and S. Foster, Proc.-IEEE Ultrason. Symp.  1, 453 (2004).

Fraser, S. E.

Fukumura, D.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med.  15, 1219 (2009).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Jiang, J. Y.

Khurana, M.

Kulkarni, M.

Lanning, R. M.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med.  15, 1219 (2009).
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Leung, M. K. K.

Lo, S.

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V. X. D. Yang, M. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. Wilson, and I. Vitkin, Opt. Express  11, 794 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

Mariampillai, A.

Mok, A.

Moriyama, E. H.

Mujat, M.

Munce, N. R.

Munn, L. L.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med.  15, 1219 (2009).
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B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med.  15, 1219 (2009).
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Tearney, G. J.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyrrell, J. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med.  15, 1219 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B.

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med.  15, 1219 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitkin, I.

Vitkin, I. A.

Vray, D.

V. X. D. Yang, A. Needles, D. Vray, S. Lo, B. C. Wilson, and S. Foster, Proc.-IEEE Ultrason. Symp.  1, 453 (2004).

Wang, R. K.

Werner, J. S.

Wilson, B.

Wilson, B. C.

Wu, W.

Yang, V. X. D.

Yaseen, M. A.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhao, Y.

Nat. Med.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med.  15, 1219 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc.-IEEE Ultrason. Symp.

V. X. D. Yang, A. Needles, D. Vray, S. Lo, B. C. Wilson, and S. Foster, Proc.-IEEE Ultrason. Symp.  1, 453 (2004).

Other

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley-Interscience, 2000).

Supplementary Material (2)

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» Media 2: AVI (1797 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SV SNR measured from intralipid and silicone gel phantoms doped with titanium dioxide for various temporal averaging gates ( N = 2 , 4 , 8 , 16 , 32 ) . (b) SV measured from intralipid compared to the silicone phantom demonstrating the effect of spatial shifts between frames ( N = 2 ) and theory.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In vivo imaging in a low BTM situation: (a) fluorescence image; (b) corresponding SV image with gate length N = 8 ; (c) magnified region of interest from fluorescence data; (d) magnified region of interest from SV data. Scale bars represent 1 mm in (a) and (b) and 200 μ m in (c) and (d).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Orthogonal slices through a 9L gliosarcoma tumor (t) implanted within the window chamber, with the main tumor appearing as the low intensity region. (b) Corresponding microvascular projection image for the tumor, with gate length N = 8 , arrows indicate the location of satellite metastasis. The color indicates relative depth of the vessels, with brighter shades indicating superficial (closest to the coverslip of the window chamber) and gray indicating deeply seated vasculature. (c)–(e) Magnified region ( 750 × 750 μ m 2 ) demonstrating the effects of increased gate length ( N = 2 , 4 , 8 ) . Scale is bar = 250 μ m .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In vivo imaging in a high BTM situation: (a) structural image of human nail root with SV data overlay (Media 1), (b) structural image from the same location with color Doppler image overlay. (The scan head was tilted by 10° relative to the surface of the finger, providing a Doppler angle of 80 ° .) (Media 2) Field of view is 2 × 2 mm 2 . Scale bar = 500 μ m .

Equations (2)

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S V i j k = 1 N i = 1 N ( I i j k 1 N i = 1 N I i j k ) 2 ,
SV SNR ( N , I 0 ) = SV Fluid ( N , I 0 ) SV Solid ( N , I 0 ) σ Fluid 2 ( N , I 0 ) + σ Solid 2 ( N , I 0 ) ,

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