Abstract

Surface-wave solitons, induced by the pyroelectric effect, are formed at the interface between a photorefractive ferroelectric medium and a linear medium. These optical solitons are trapped in both transverse dimensions and are efficiently attracted to the interface. The asymmetric shape of the nonlinear index change formed under the charge saturation regime is responsible for the surface-wave solitons’ formation. Experimental demonstrations are performed in a lithium niobate sample with moderate temperature change. The phenomenon is successfully explained through numerical simulations.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

X. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, Phys. Rev. Lett.  96, 063902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, Appl. Phys. Lett.  85, 2193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett.  21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun.  130, 288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. Cronin-Golomb, Opt. Lett.  20, 2075 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A  51, 1571 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

D. Mihalache, M. Bertolotti, and C. Sibilia, Prog. Opt.  27, 229 (1989).

1980 (1)

Alfassi, B.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertolotti, M.

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, Appl. Phys. Lett.  85, 2193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Mihalache, M. Bertolotti, and C. Sibilia, Prog. Opt.  27, 229 (1989).

Bezryadina, A.

X. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carvalho, M. I.

S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun.  130, 288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chauvet, M.

Chen, Z.

X. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christodoulides, D. N.

X. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, Phys. Rev. Lett.  96, 063902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Stegeman, and A. Haché, Opt. Lett.  30, 2466 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun.  130, 288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Coda, V.

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Devaux, F.

Fazio, E.

M. Chauvet, V. Coda, H. Maillotte, E. Fazio, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett.  30, 1977 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, Appl. Phys. Lett.  85, 2193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garcia Quirino, G. S.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A  51, 1571 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garrett, M. H.

Haché, A.

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, Phys. Rev. Lett.  96, 063902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Stegeman, and A. Haché, Opt. Lett.  30, 2466 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, H. Z.

Leach, P.

Liu, S. M.

Lou, C. B.

Ma, H. H.

Maillotte, H.

Makris, K. G.

X. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, Phys. Rev. Lett.  96, 063902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Stegeman, and A. Haché, Opt. Lett.  30, 2466 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manela, O.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mihalache, D.

D. Mihalache, M. Bertolotti, and C. Sibilia, Prog. Opt.  27, 229 (1989).

Morandotti, R.

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, Phys. Rev. Lett.  96, 063902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Passier, R.

Petris, A.

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, Appl. Phys. Lett.  85, 2193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ramadan, W.

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, Appl. Phys. Lett.  85, 2193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Renzi, F.

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, Appl. Phys. Lett.  85, 2193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rinaldi, R.

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, Appl. Phys. Lett.  85, 2193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rotschild, C.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safioui, J.

Salamo, G.

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, Phys. Rev. Lett.  96, 063902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Chauvet, V. Coda, H. Maillotte, E. Fazio, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett.  30, 1977 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett.  21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A  51, 1571 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segev, M.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett.  21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih,

Sibilia, C.

D. Mihalache, M. Bertolotti, and C. Sibilia, Prog. Opt.  27, 229 (1989).

Singh, S. R.

S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun.  130, 288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, M.

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, Phys. Rev. Lett.  96, 063902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.

Stegeman, G. I.

X. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, Phys. Rev. Lett.  96, 063902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A  51, 1571 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suntsov, S.

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, Phys. Rev. Lett.  96, 063902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Stegeman, and A. Haché, Opt. Lett.  30, 2466 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, J. G.

Tomlinson, W. J.

Valley, G. C.

Vlad, V. I.

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, Appl. Phys. Lett.  85, 2193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B. H.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J. J.

Yang, H.

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, Phys. Rev. Lett.  96, 063902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T. H.

Zhu, B. G.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, Appl. Phys. Lett.  85, 2193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun.  130, 288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A  51, 1571 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, Phys. Rev. Lett.  96, 063902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Opt. (1)

D. Mihalache, M. Bertolotti, and C. Sibilia, Prog. Opt.  27, 229 (1989).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Numerical simulation showing the formation of a SS in Li Nb O 3 by using pyroelectricity. Left column, side-view intensity distribution of the beam; right column, corresponding view at the exit face along with refractive index distribution Δ n at three characteristic times. Δ T = 20 ° C and initial PR parameters N d = 2 × 10 21 m 3 , N a = N d + = 0.99 N d , N = 0 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental demonstration of a pyroelectric SS in a 2 - cm -long Li Nb O 3 sample. (a) Beam intensity profile along the c axis and (b) distribution at the entrance face of the sample. (c), (d) Evolution of output beam intensity once sample temperature is set to 40 ° C ; (e), (f) formed soliton and its profile. The dashed line indicates the interface location.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Side view of (a) a beam launched inside a Li Nb O 3 sample in diffraction regime and (b) when a pyroelectric SS is formed. The dashed line is beam reflection location in the linear regime. Views are constructed from several images.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ t = μ e ( N E ) β ph [ ( N d N d + ) I ] c ,
N = s ( I + I d ) ( N d N d + ) γ N d + ,
N d + = N a + ρ e ,
E ( r ) = E py c + 1 4 π ϵ 0 ϵ r V ρ ( r ) r r | r r | 3 d V .
E py = Δ E = 1 ϵ 0 ϵ r p Δ T .
{ z i 2 k Δ } A = i k Δ n A ,

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