Abstract

A robust two-way quantum key distribution system based on phase encoding is demonstrated in 50km and 100km commercial communication fiber. The system can automatically compensate for birefringence effects and remain stable over 23 h. A low quantum bit error rate and high visibility are obtained. Furthermore, the storage fiber is unnecessary and train of pulses is only needed in the test with 100km fiber.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.
  2. C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptology 5, 3 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Halder, H. Weinfurter, P. M. Gorman, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, Nature 419, 450 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H.-Q. Ma, J.-L. Zhao, and L.-A. Wu, Opt. Lett. 32, 698 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. X.-F. Mo, B. Zhu, Z.-F. Han, Y.-Z. Gui, and G.-C. Guo, Opt. Lett. 30, 2632 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. W.-T. Liu, W. Wu, L.-M. Liang, C.-Z. Li, and J.-M. Yuan, Chin. Phys. Lett. 32, 287 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Dušek, O. Haderka, and M. Hendrych, Opt. Commun. 169, 103 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W.-Y. Hwang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H.-K. Lo, X.-F. Ma, and K. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. X.-B. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. N. Gisin and S. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4200 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J.-C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Brodsky, Opt. Lett. 33, 1476 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Peng, H. Jiang, and H. Guo, J. Phys. B 41, 085509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Brodsky, Opt. Lett. 33, 1476 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

W.-T. Liu, W. Wu, L.-M. Liang, C.-Z. Li, and J.-M. Yuan, Chin. Phys. Lett. 32, 287 (2006).

2005

X.-F. Mo, B. Zhu, Z.-F. Han, Y.-Z. Gui, and G.-C. Guo, Opt. Lett. 30, 2632 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Subacius, A. Zavriyev, and A. Trifonov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lo, X.-F. Ma, and K. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-B. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J.-C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

W.-Y. Hwang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Halder, H. Weinfurter, P. M. Gorman, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, Nature 419, 450 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

M. Dušek, O. Haderka, and M. Hendrych, Opt. Commun. 169, 103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin and S. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. D. Esman and M. J. Marrone, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptology 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Antonelli, C.

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptology 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Bessette, F.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptology 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boileau, J.-C.

J.-C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brassard, G.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptology 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Brodsky, M.

Chen, K.

H.-K. Lo, X.-F. Ma, and K. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derkacs, D.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, A. R.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dušek, M.

M. Dušek, O. Haderka, and M. Hendrych, Opt. Commun. 169, 103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Esman, R. D.

R. D. Esman and M. J. Marrone, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin and S. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gorman, P. M.

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Halder, H. Weinfurter, P. M. Gorman, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, Nature 419, 450 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gottesman, D.

J.-C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gui, Y.-Z.

Guinnard, O.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G.-C.

Guo, H.

X. Peng, H. Jiang, and H. Guo, J. Phys. B 41, 085509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haderka, O.

M. Dušek, O. Haderka, and M. Hendrych, Opt. Commun. 169, 103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Halder, M.

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Halder, H. Weinfurter, P. M. Gorman, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, Nature 419, 450 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Z.-F.

Hendrych, M.

M. Dušek, O. Haderka, and M. Hendrych, Opt. Commun. 169, 103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herzog, T.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, R. J.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huttner, B.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, W.-Y.

W.-Y. Hwang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

X. Peng, H. Jiang, and H. Guo, J. Phys. B 41, 085509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kurtsiefer, C.

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Halder, H. Weinfurter, P. M. Gorman, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, Nature 419, 450 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laflamme, R.

J.-C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.-Z.

W.-T. Liu, W. Wu, L.-M. Liang, C.-Z. Li, and J.-M. Yuan, Chin. Phys. Lett. 32, 287 (2006).

Liang, L.-M.

W.-T. Liu, W. Wu, L.-M. Liang, C.-Z. Li, and J.-M. Yuan, Chin. Phys. Lett. 32, 287 (2006).

Liu, W.-T.

W.-T. Liu, W. Wu, L.-M. Liang, C.-Z. Li, and J.-M. Yuan, Chin. Phys. Lett. 32, 287 (2006).

Lo, H.-K.

H.-K. Lo, X.-F. Ma, and K. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lütkenhaus, N.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H.-Q.

Ma, X.-F.

H.-K. Lo, X.-F. Ma, and K. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marrone, M. J.

R. D. Esman and M. J. Marrone, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mecozzi, A.

Mo, X.-F.

Mor, T.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, A.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nordholt, J. E.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X.

X. Peng, H. Jiang, and H. Guo, J. Phys. B 41, 085509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, C. G.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poulin, D.

J.-C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rarity, J. G.

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Halder, H. Weinfurter, P. M. Gorman, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, Nature 419, 450 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ribordy, G.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Salvail, L.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptology 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, B. C.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, A. W.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smolin, J.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptology 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spekkens, R. W.

J.-C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stucki, D.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Subacius, D.

D. Subacius, A. Zavriyev, and A. Trifonov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tapster, P. R.

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Halder, H. Weinfurter, P. M. Gorman, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, Nature 419, 450 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, W.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trifonov, A.

D. Subacius, A. Zavriyev, and A. Trifonov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.-B.

X.-B. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinfurter, H.

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Halder, H. Weinfurter, P. M. Gorman, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, Nature 419, 450 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, S.

N. Gisin and S. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.-A.

Wu, W.

W.-T. Liu, W. Wu, L.-M. Liang, C.-Z. Li, and J.-M. Yuan, Chin. Phys. Lett. 32, 287 (2006).

Yuan, J.-M.

W.-T. Liu, W. Wu, L.-M. Liang, C.-Z. Li, and J.-M. Yuan, Chin. Phys. Lett. 32, 287 (2006).

Yuan, Z. L.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zarda, P.

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Halder, H. Weinfurter, P. M. Gorman, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, Nature 419, 450 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavriyev, A.

D. Subacius, A. Zavriyev, and A. Trifonov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.-L.

Zhu, B.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Subacius, A. Zavriyev, and A. Trifonov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett.

W.-T. Liu, W. Wu, L.-M. Liang, C.-Z. Li, and J.-M. Yuan, Chin. Phys. Lett. 32, 287 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

R. D. Esman and M. J. Marrone, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryptology

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptology 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B

X. Peng, H. Jiang, and H. Guo, J. Phys. B 41, 085509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Halder, H. Weinfurter, P. M. Gorman, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, Nature 419, 450 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. Dušek, O. Haderka, and M. Hendrych, Opt. Commun. 169, 103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-Y. Hwang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-K. Lo, X.-F. Ma, and K. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-B. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin and S. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of experimental system. LD, laser diode; Att., attenuator; PC, polarization controller; CIR, circulator; BS, beam splitter; PBS, polarization beam splitter; FM, Faraday mirror; PM, phase modulator; DL, delay line; FR, 90° Faraday rotator; QC, quantum channel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Visibility of experimental system as a function of time. V P M 1 = 0 and V P M 2 = V 0 , where V 0 is the half-wave voltage of the PM. The continuous pulse mode is adopted.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T FM = [ 0 1 1 0 ] T = T T FM T = exp ( i ϕ ) T FM ,
FR ± ( θ ) = [ cos ( θ ) sin ( θ ) ± sin ( θ ) cos ( θ ) ] ,
T A ( φ ) = P 21 3 FR ( 90 ° ) PM 2 P 13 3 + P 31 3 PM 2 FR + ( 90 ° ) P 12 3 = [ 0 0 0 1 ] [ 0 1 1 0 ] exp ( i φ ) [ 1 0 0 0 ] + [ 1 0 0 0 ] exp ( i φ ) [ 0 1 1 0 ] [ 0 0 0 1 ] = exp ( i φ ) [ 0 1 1 0 ] ,
| P 1 = PM 1 ( φ B ) P 13 2 ( T QC T A ( 0 ) T QC ) P 21 2 P 12 1 ( T DL T FM T DL ) P 31 1 E in = exp [ i ( φ B + ϕ 1 ) ] E in ,
| P 2 = P 13 1 ( T DL T FM T DL ) P 21 1 P 12 2 ( T QC T A ( φ A ) T QC ) P 31 2 PM 1 ( 0 ) E in = exp [ i ( φ A + ϕ 2 ) ] E in ,
I out = γ | exp [ i ( φ B + ϕ 1 ) ] + exp [ i ( φ A + ϕ 2 ) ] | 2 I in = 2 γ [ 1 + cos ( Δ φ A B + Δ ϕ 12 ) ] I in = 2 γ [ 1 + cos ( Δ φ A B ) ] I in ,
V = I max out I min out I max out + I min out ,
N = L f n c , t wait = L n c ,

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