Abstract

Imaging with a layered superlens is a spatial filtering operation characterized by the point spread function (PSF). We show that in the same optical system the image of a narrow subwavelength Gaussian incident field may be surprisingly dissimilar to the PSF, and the width of the PSF is not a straightforward measure of the resolution. The FWHM or standard deviation of the PSF gives ambiguous information about the actual resolution, and imaging of objects smaller than the FWHM of the PSF is possible. A multiscale analysis of imaging gives good insight into the peculiar scale-dependent properties of subwavelength imaging.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

2008 (2)

M. Conforti, M. Guasoni, and C. D. Angelis, Opt. Lett. 33, 2662 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Centini, N. Akozbek, A. D'Orazio, J. W. Haus, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033848 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

A. Farjadpour, D. Roundy, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, and G. Burr, Opt. Lett. 31, 2972 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Belov and Y. Hao, Phys. Rev. B 73, 113110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, Phys. Rev. B 74, 115116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. O. Melville and R. J. Blaikie, Opt. Express 13, 2127 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Belov, C. Simovski, and P. Ikonen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 193105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

E.Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1998).

1972 (1)

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Akozbek, N.

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Centini, N. Akozbek, A. D'Orazio, J. W. Haus, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033848 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M. J. Bloemer, D. Ceglia, M. Centini, A. Mandatori, C. Sibilia, N. Akozbek, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Fowler, and J. Haus, Opt. Express 15, 508 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angelis, C. D.

Belov, P. A.

P. A. Belov and Y. Hao, Phys. Rev. B 73, 113110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Belov, C. Simovski, and P. Ikonen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 193105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

Blaikie, R. J.

Bloemer, M. J.

Burr, G.

Cappeddu, M. G.

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Centini, N. Akozbek, A. D'Orazio, J. W. Haus, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033848 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M. J. Bloemer, D. Ceglia, M. Centini, A. Mandatori, C. Sibilia, N. Akozbek, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Fowler, and J. Haus, Opt. Express 15, 508 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ceglia, D.

Centini, M.

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Centini, N. Akozbek, A. D'Orazio, J. W. Haus, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033848 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M. J. Bloemer, D. Ceglia, M. Centini, A. Mandatori, C. Sibilia, N. Akozbek, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Fowler, and J. Haus, Opt. Express 15, 508 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R.

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Conforti, M.

D'Aguanno, G.

de Ceglia, D.

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Centini, N. Akozbek, A. D'Orazio, J. W. Haus, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033848 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D'Orazio, A.

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Centini, N. Akozbek, A. D'Orazio, J. W. Haus, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033848 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farjadpour, A.

Fowler, M.

Guasoni, M.

Hao, Y.

P. A. Belov and Y. Hao, Phys. Rev. B 73, 113110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haus, J.

Haus, J. W.

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Centini, N. Akozbek, A. D'Orazio, J. W. Haus, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033848 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

X. Li, S. He, and Y. Jin, Phys. Rev. B 75, 045103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

Ikonen, P.

P. A. Belov, C. Simovski, and P. Ikonen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 193105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

X. Li, S. He, and Y. Jin, Phys. Rev. B 75, 045103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, P.

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

Kawakami, S.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kosaka, H.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kotynski, R.

R. Kotynski, and T. Stefaniuk, J. Opt. A 11, 015001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Kotynski, T. Stefaniuk, and A. Pastuszczak, arXiv:1002.0658.

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

X. Li, S. He, and Y. Jin, Phys. Rev. B 75, 045103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mandatori, A.

Mattiucci, N.

Melville, D. O.

Notomi, M.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pastuszczak, A.

R. Kotynski, T. Stefaniuk, and A. Pastuszczak, arXiv:1002.0658.

Pendry, J. B.

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, Phys. Rev. B 74, 115116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, A.

Roundy, D.

Saleh, B.

B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2007).

Sato, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

Sibilia, C.

Simovski, C.

P. A. Belov, C. Simovski, and P. Ikonen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 193105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stefaniuk, T.

R. Kotynski, and T. Stefaniuk, J. Opt. A 11, 015001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Kotynski, T. Stefaniuk, and A. Pastuszczak, arXiv:1002.0658.

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamamura, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M.

B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2007).

Tomita, A.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. P.

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, Phys. Rev. B 74, 115116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vincenti, M. A.

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Centini, N. Akozbek, A. D'Orazio, J. W. Haus, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033848 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wood, B.

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, Phys. Rev. B 74, 115116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

R. Kotynski, and T. Stefaniuk, J. Opt. A 11, 015001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Centini, N. Akozbek, A. D'Orazio, J. W. Haus, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033848 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (5)

P. A. Belov, C. Simovski, and P. Ikonen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 193105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Belov and Y. Hao, Phys. Rev. B 73, 113110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, S. He, and Y. Jin, Phys. Rev. B 75, 045103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, Phys. Rev. B 74, 115116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

R. Kotynski, T. Stefaniuk, and A. Pastuszczak, arXiv:1002.0658.

B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2007).

E.Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1998).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intensity transmission and reflection coefficients ( T , R ) of the multilayer as a function of the filling factor, plotted over the TF (in vertical cross sections of the color map). Phase isolines are distanced by π / 4 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PSF (in vertical cross sections) as a function of the filling factor (top) compared with the response of the multilayer to a narrow Gaussian signal with subwavelength width [ σ ( H y 2 ) = 0.2 λ ] (bottom). Phase isolines are distanced by π / 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TF (top) and PSF (bottom) of the two multilayers (solid curve: amplitude/intensity; dashed curve: phase).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission of a subwavelength Gaussian incident field of various widths through two multilayers (vertical cross sections include the normalized field H y 2 ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time-averaged Poynting vector S z obtained with FDTD, showing light transmission through multilayers I (left) and II (right). The incident field comes from two slits in a perfect electric conductor (top) or is a narrow Gaussian beam with σ ( H y 2 ) = 0.2 λ (bottom).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H y ( x , z ) = + H ̂ y ( k x , z ) exp ( ı k x x ) d k x ,
H ̂ y ( k x , z = L ) = TF ( k x ) H ̂ y Inc ( k x , z = 0 ) .
H y ( x ) PSF ( x ) 0 = H y ( x ) 0 + PSF ( x ) 0 ,
exp ( x 2 / σ 1 2 ) exp ( x 2 / σ 2 2 ) exp ( x 2 / ( σ 1 2 + σ 2 2 ) ) .

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