Abstract

A high-stability microwave frequency reference is transferred over 50 km of spooled optical fiber by propagation of a 90-nm-wide optical frequency comb centered at 1.56μm. Environmentally induced fiber phase noise is actively suppressed by returning the optical frequency comb via a separate fiber. The stability of the microwave frequency delivered is measured at the “user” end, eliminating the need for the assumption of correlation between the noise in the forward and return paths. The measured transfer stability is 4.6×1015τ1, rendering this technique suitable for the transfer of state-of-the-art frequency references.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavać, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, Metrologia 43, 109 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (1)

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavać, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, Metrologia 43, 109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52, 1068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, Opt. Lett. 30, 1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Achkar, J.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavać, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, Metrologia 43, 109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amemiya, M.

Amy-Klein, A.

Bauch, A.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavać, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, Metrologia 43, 109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bize, S.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavać, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, Metrologia 43, 109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Calonico, D.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavać, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, Metrologia 43, 109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chardonnet, Ch.

Crane, S.

Cruz, F. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dach, R.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavać, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, Metrologia 43, 109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dawkins, S. T.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52, 1068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foreman, S. M.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, Y.

Gill, P.

S. A. Webster, M. Oxborrow, S. Pugla, J. Millo, and P. Gill, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grosche, G.

Hlavac, R.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavać, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, Metrologia 43, 109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52, 1068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holleville, D.

Holman, K. W.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, Opt. Lett. 30, 1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

Hong, F. L.

Hudson, D. D.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, Opt. Lett. 30, 1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikegami, T.

Imae, M.

Inaba, H.

Itano, W. M.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, E. N.

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52, 1068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

Jones, D. J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, Opt. Lett. 30, 1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katori, H.

Kéfélian, F.

Lemonde, P.

Lipphardt, B.

Lopez, O.

Lorini, L.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavać, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, Metrologia 43, 109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

Luiten, A. N.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McFerran, J. J.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millo, J.

Musha, M.

Nakagawa, K.

Newbury, N. R.

Oxborrow, M.

S. A. Webster, M. Oxborrow, S. Pugla, J. Millo, and P. Gill, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parker, T.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavać, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, Metrologia 43, 109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petit, G.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavać, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, Metrologia 43, 109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Piester, D.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavać, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, Metrologia 43, 109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Predehl, K.

Pugla, S.

S. A. Webster, M. Oxborrow, S. Pugla, J. Millo, and P. Gill, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

Schnatz, H.

Sterr, U.

Swann, W. C.

Szymaniec, K.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavać, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, Metrologia 43, 109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takamizawa, A.

Takamoto, M.

Terra, O.

Ueda, K.

Uhrich, P.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavać, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, Metrologia 43, 109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, F.

Watabe, K.

Webster, S. A.

S. A. Webster, M. Oxborrow, S. Pugla, J. Millo, and P. Gill, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Williams, P. A.

Yanagimachi, S.

Ye, J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, Opt. Lett. 30, 1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, B. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 98, 723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (2)

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52, 1068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Metrologia (1)

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavać, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, Metrologia 43, 109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. A. Webster, M. Oxborrow, S. Pugla, J. Millo, and P. Gill, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

L.Maleki, ed., Proceedings of the 7th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (World Scientific, 2009), p. 73.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the experimental setup. The noise introduced by the fiber is measured by comparing the local and returned repetition rates and suppressed with a fiber stretcher. A simple connection change switches between phase noise ( P ) and frequency stability ( F ) measurements of the repetition rate signal at the user end: MLL, mode-locked laser; PD, photodetector; DCF, dispersion-compensating fiber; SSB, single-sideband modulator; HVA, high-voltage amplifier; H Maser, hydrogen maser; DDS, direct digital synthesizer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase noise of the 15th harmonic of the repetition rate delivered at the user end of the fiber with and without phase-noise suppression. The dips above a few kilohertz are due to self-homodyne detection of the laser noise. Their frequencies correspond to multiples of the inverse of the pulse propagation time over the fiber length.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fractional frequency stability of the 15th harmonic of the repetition rate delivered at the user end of the fiber with (squares) and without (circles) phase noise suppression. The optical noise floor (filled triangles) and the noise floor imposed by the electronics (open triangles) are also shown.

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