Abstract

We report the observation of electromagnetically induced transparency in a sample of cryogenically cooled ground-state atomic ytterbium (S01). The transparency is produced due to coherence between the optical field and the nuclear spin state of the Yb173 nucleus. Because the nuclear spin states interact very weakly with their environment, they are resistant to decoherence due to inelastic collisions and inhomogenous fields. Consequently, atomic ensembles of pure nuclear spin states may be a superior medium for a variety of nonlinear optics and quantum information experiments.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. N. Matsukevich, T. Chaneliere, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013601 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. W. C. Griffith, M. D. Swallows, T. H. Loftus, M. V. Romalis, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 101601 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (3)

R. Zhao, Y. O. Dudin, S. D. Jenkins, C. J. Campbell, D. N. Matsukevich, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Nat. Phys. 5, 100 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hong, A. V. Gorshkov, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, J. M. Doyle, M. D. Lukin, and M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 79, 013806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Griffith, M. D. Swallows, T. H. Loftus, M. V. Romalis, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 101601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

M.-J. Lu, K. S. Hardman, J. D. Weinstein, and B. Zygelman, Phys. Rev. A 77, 060701 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Goldfarb, J. Ghosh, M. David, J. Ruggiero, T. Chaneliere, J.-L. L. Gouet, H. Gilles, R. Ghosh, and F. Bretenaker, Europhys. Lett. 82, 54002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Tscherbul, P. Zhang, H. R. Sadeghpour, A. Dalgarno, N. Brahms, Y. S. Au, and J. M. Doyle, Phys. Rev. A 78, 060703 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

I. Novikova, A. Gorshkov, D. Phillips, A. Sorensen, M. Lukin, and R. Walsworth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

M. Takeuchi, T. Takano, S. Ichihara, Y. Takasu, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, Appl. Phys. B 83, 107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Matsukevich, T. Chaneliere, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Figueroa, F. Vewinger, J. Appel, and A. I. Lvovsky, Opt. Lett. 31, 2625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

D. Das, S. Barthwal, A. Banerjee, and V. Natarajan, Phys. Rev. A 72, 032506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

L. M. K. Vandersypen and I. L. Chuang, Rev. Mod. Phys. 76, 1037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chou, S. V. Polyakov, A. Kuzmich, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Julsgaard, J. Sherson, J. I. Cirac, J. Fiurasek, and E. S. Polzik, Nature 432, 482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. D. Lukin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, Nature 414, 413 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

D. F. Kimball, D. Clyde, D. Budker, D. DeMille, S. J. Freedman, S. Rochester, J. E. Stalnaker, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

L. Olschiwski and E. W. Otten, Z. Phys. 200, 224 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

F. Bloch, Phys. Rev. 70, 460 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Appel, J.

Au, Y. S.

T. V. Tscherbul, P. Zhang, H. R. Sadeghpour, A. Dalgarno, N. Brahms, Y. S. Au, and J. M. Doyle, Phys. Rev. A 78, 060703 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, A.

D. Das, S. Barthwal, A. Banerjee, and V. Natarajan, Phys. Rev. A 72, 032506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barthwal, S.

D. Das, S. Barthwal, A. Banerjee, and V. Natarajan, Phys. Rev. A 72, 032506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, F.

F. Bloch, Phys. Rev. 70, 460 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Brahms, N.

T. V. Tscherbul, P. Zhang, H. R. Sadeghpour, A. Dalgarno, N. Brahms, Y. S. Au, and J. M. Doyle, Phys. Rev. A 78, 060703 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bretenaker, F.

F. Goldfarb, J. Ghosh, M. David, J. Ruggiero, T. Chaneliere, J.-L. L. Gouet, H. Gilles, R. Ghosh, and F. Bretenaker, Europhys. Lett. 82, 54002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Budker, D.

D. F. Kimball, D. Clyde, D. Budker, D. DeMille, S. J. Freedman, S. Rochester, J. E. Stalnaker, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, C. J.

R. Zhao, Y. O. Dudin, S. D. Jenkins, C. J. Campbell, D. N. Matsukevich, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Nat. Phys. 5, 100 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chaneliere, T.

F. Goldfarb, J. Ghosh, M. David, J. Ruggiero, T. Chaneliere, J.-L. L. Gouet, H. Gilles, R. Ghosh, and F. Bretenaker, Europhys. Lett. 82, 54002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Matsukevich, T. Chaneliere, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, C. W.

C. W. Chou, S. V. Polyakov, A. Kuzmich, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuang, I. L.

L. M. K. Vandersypen and I. L. Chuang, Rev. Mod. Phys. 76, 1037 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cirac, J. I.

B. Julsgaard, J. Sherson, J. I. Cirac, J. Fiurasek, and E. S. Polzik, Nature 432, 482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, Nature 414, 413 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clyde, D.

D. F. Kimball, D. Clyde, D. Budker, D. DeMille, S. J. Freedman, S. Rochester, J. E. Stalnaker, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dalgarno, A.

T. V. Tscherbul, P. Zhang, H. R. Sadeghpour, A. Dalgarno, N. Brahms, Y. S. Au, and J. M. Doyle, Phys. Rev. A 78, 060703 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Das, D.

D. Das, S. Barthwal, A. Banerjee, and V. Natarajan, Phys. Rev. A 72, 032506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

David, M.

F. Goldfarb, J. Ghosh, M. David, J. Ruggiero, T. Chaneliere, J.-L. L. Gouet, H. Gilles, R. Ghosh, and F. Bretenaker, Europhys. Lett. 82, 54002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DeMille, D.

D. F. Kimball, D. Clyde, D. Budker, D. DeMille, S. J. Freedman, S. Rochester, J. E. Stalnaker, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, J. M.

T. Hong, A. V. Gorshkov, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, J. M. Doyle, M. D. Lukin, and M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 79, 013806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Tscherbul, P. Zhang, H. R. Sadeghpour, A. Dalgarno, N. Brahms, Y. S. Au, and J. M. Doyle, Phys. Rev. A 78, 060703 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duan, L.-M.

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, Nature 414, 413 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudin, Y. O.

R. Zhao, Y. O. Dudin, S. D. Jenkins, C. J. Campbell, D. N. Matsukevich, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Nat. Phys. 5, 100 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Figueroa, E.

Fiurasek, J.

B. Julsgaard, J. Sherson, J. I. Cirac, J. Fiurasek, and E. S. Polzik, Nature 432, 482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, A.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortson, E. N.

W. C. Griffith, M. D. Swallows, T. H. Loftus, M. V. Romalis, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 101601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freedman, S. J.

D. F. Kimball, D. Clyde, D. Budker, D. DeMille, S. J. Freedman, S. Rochester, J. E. Stalnaker, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, J.

F. Goldfarb, J. Ghosh, M. David, J. Ruggiero, T. Chaneliere, J.-L. L. Gouet, H. Gilles, R. Ghosh, and F. Bretenaker, Europhys. Lett. 82, 54002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, R.

F. Goldfarb, J. Ghosh, M. David, J. Ruggiero, T. Chaneliere, J.-L. L. Gouet, H. Gilles, R. Ghosh, and F. Bretenaker, Europhys. Lett. 82, 54002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilles, H.

F. Goldfarb, J. Ghosh, M. David, J. Ruggiero, T. Chaneliere, J.-L. L. Gouet, H. Gilles, R. Ghosh, and F. Bretenaker, Europhys. Lett. 82, 54002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goldfarb, F.

F. Goldfarb, J. Ghosh, M. David, J. Ruggiero, T. Chaneliere, J.-L. L. Gouet, H. Gilles, R. Ghosh, and F. Bretenaker, Europhys. Lett. 82, 54002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gorshkov, A.

I. Novikova, A. Gorshkov, D. Phillips, A. Sorensen, M. Lukin, and R. Walsworth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorshkov, A. V.

T. Hong, A. V. Gorshkov, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, J. M. Doyle, M. D. Lukin, and M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 79, 013806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gouet, J.-L. L.

F. Goldfarb, J. Ghosh, M. David, J. Ruggiero, T. Chaneliere, J.-L. L. Gouet, H. Gilles, R. Ghosh, and F. Bretenaker, Europhys. Lett. 82, 54002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Griffith, W. C.

W. C. Griffith, M. D. Swallows, T. H. Loftus, M. V. Romalis, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 101601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Happer, W.

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hardman, K. S.

M.-J. Lu, K. S. Hardman, J. D. Weinstein, and B. Zygelman, Phys. Rev. A 77, 060701 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heckel, B. R.

W. C. Griffith, M. D. Swallows, T. H. Loftus, M. V. Romalis, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 101601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, T.

T. Hong, A. V. Gorshkov, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, J. M. Doyle, M. D. Lukin, and M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 79, 013806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ichihara, S.

M. Takeuchi, T. Takano, S. Ichihara, Y. Takasu, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, Appl. Phys. B 83, 107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, S. D.

R. Zhao, Y. O. Dudin, S. D. Jenkins, C. J. Campbell, D. N. Matsukevich, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Nat. Phys. 5, 100 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Matsukevich, T. Chaneliere, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Julsgaard, B.

B. Julsgaard, J. Sherson, J. I. Cirac, J. Fiurasek, and E. S. Polzik, Nature 432, 482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, T. A. B.

R. Zhao, Y. O. Dudin, S. D. Jenkins, C. J. Campbell, D. N. Matsukevich, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Nat. Phys. 5, 100 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Matsukevich, T. Chaneliere, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimball, D. F.

D. F. Kimball, D. Clyde, D. Budker, D. DeMille, S. J. Freedman, S. Rochester, J. E. Stalnaker, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

C. W. Chou, S. V. Polyakov, A. Kuzmich, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumakura, M.

M. Takeuchi, T. Takano, S. Ichihara, Y. Takasu, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, Appl. Phys. B 83, 107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmich, A.

R. Zhao, Y. O. Dudin, S. D. Jenkins, C. J. Campbell, D. N. Matsukevich, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Nat. Phys. 5, 100 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Matsukevich, T. Chaneliere, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Chou, S. V. Polyakov, A. Kuzmich, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lan, S.-Y.

D. N. Matsukevich, T. Chaneliere, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loftus, T. H.

W. C. Griffith, M. D. Swallows, T. H. Loftus, M. V. Romalis, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 101601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, M.-J.

M.-J. Lu, K. S. Hardman, J. D. Weinstein, and B. Zygelman, Phys. Rev. A 77, 060701 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M.

I. Novikova, A. Gorshkov, D. Phillips, A. Sorensen, M. Lukin, and R. Walsworth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukin, M. D.

T. Hong, A. V. Gorshkov, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, J. M. Doyle, M. D. Lukin, and M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 79, 013806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, Nature 414, 413 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lvovsky, A. I.

Mair, A.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, W. C.

J. E. Sansonetti, W. C. Martin, and S. L. Young, Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data (NIST, 2006), http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/Handbook/.

Matsukevich, D. N.

R. Zhao, Y. O. Dudin, S. D. Jenkins, C. J. Campbell, D. N. Matsukevich, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Nat. Phys. 5, 100 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Matsukevich, T. Chaneliere, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natarajan, V.

D. Das, S. Barthwal, A. Banerjee, and V. Natarajan, Phys. Rev. A 72, 032506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Novikova, I.

I. Novikova, A. Gorshkov, D. Phillips, A. Sorensen, M. Lukin, and R. Walsworth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olschiwski, L.

L. Olschiwski and E. W. Otten, Z. Phys. 200, 224 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Otten, E. W.

L. Olschiwski and E. W. Otten, Z. Phys. 200, 224 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, D.

T. Hong, A. V. Gorshkov, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, J. M. Doyle, M. D. Lukin, and M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 79, 013806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D.

I. Novikova, A. Gorshkov, D. Phillips, A. Sorensen, M. Lukin, and R. Walsworth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, D. F.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polyakov, S. V.

C. W. Chou, S. V. Polyakov, A. Kuzmich, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polzik, E. S.

B. Julsgaard, J. Sherson, J. I. Cirac, J. Fiurasek, and E. S. Polzik, Nature 432, 482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prentiss, M. G.

T. Hong, A. V. Gorshkov, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, J. M. Doyle, M. D. Lukin, and M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 79, 013806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rochester, S.

D. F. Kimball, D. Clyde, D. Budker, D. DeMille, S. J. Freedman, S. Rochester, J. E. Stalnaker, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Romalis, M. V.

W. C. Griffith, M. D. Swallows, T. H. Loftus, M. V. Romalis, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 101601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruggiero, J.

F. Goldfarb, J. Ghosh, M. David, J. Ruggiero, T. Chaneliere, J.-L. L. Gouet, H. Gilles, R. Ghosh, and F. Bretenaker, Europhys. Lett. 82, 54002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sadeghpour, H. R.

T. V. Tscherbul, P. Zhang, H. R. Sadeghpour, A. Dalgarno, N. Brahms, Y. S. Au, and J. M. Doyle, Phys. Rev. A 78, 060703 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sansonetti, J. E.

J. E. Sansonetti, W. C. Martin, and S. L. Young, Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data (NIST, 2006), http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/Handbook/.

Sherson, J.

B. Julsgaard, J. Sherson, J. I. Cirac, J. Fiurasek, and E. S. Polzik, Nature 432, 482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorensen, A.

I. Novikova, A. Gorshkov, D. Phillips, A. Sorensen, M. Lukin, and R. Walsworth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stalnaker, J. E.

D. F. Kimball, D. Clyde, D. Budker, D. DeMille, S. J. Freedman, S. Rochester, J. E. Stalnaker, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swallows, M. D.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Yb absorption spectrum taken on the S 0 1 P 1 o 1 transition, alongside a simplified Yb 173 level diagram. The spectrum’s frequency offset is 25 068 cm 1 . The peaks are labeled according to isotope and excited-state hyperfine level [13]; all even isotopes have I = 0 . The peak labeled with an arrow is the main optical transition used in this work: F = 5 2 F = 5 2 . The peaks of Yb 172 and Yb 174 are distorted owing to saturation of our absorption spectroscopy at OD 5 . The spectrum was taken at a helium density of 2 × 10 16 cm 3 , 400 ms after a 1.3 mJ ablation pulse.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

T 2 measurements of Yb 173 nuclear spin showing the OD difference between σ + and σ beams, as described in the text. Time is relative to the ablation pulse. The atoms are pumped with a 10 ms σ + polarized. pump pulse 1.1 s after laser ablation. The accompanying noise is caused by a mechanical shutter. The data was taken at a helium density n = 2 × 10 17 cm 3 . By fitting the oscillation to Eq. (1), we deduce a T 2 time of ( 350 ± 50 ) ms and a Larmor frequency ω L 2 π = 13 Hz .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The ratio of the OD with EIT to OD 0 (without EIT) is plotted as a function of the two-photon detuning δ. The data are fitted to a Lorentzian, as described in the text. Coupling beam powers of 0.03 mW and 0.4 mW pass through an OD 0 = 0.5 cloud, giving EIT FWHM linewidths of FWHM 2 π = 120 Hz and FWHM/ 2 π = 1400 Hz , respectively. Both beams have a beam diameter of 2.5 cm , and the helium density in the cell is 3 × 10 16 cm 3 . The uncertainty of the two-photon detuning is 12%.

Equations (1)

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Δ OD = A sin ( ω L t + ϕ ) exp ( t T 2 ) ,

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