Abstract

This Letter describes a quantitative phase microscopy for microfluidic devices using a simple self-referencing interferometry. Compared with the gross dimensions of the microfluidic device, the microchannel occupies only a small area of the device. Hence, the reference field can be generated by inverting the relative position of the specimen and background. Our system is realized using an extended depth-of-field optics in the form of Michelson interferometry, which allows quantitative phase measurement for an increased depth-of-field without moving objective lens or specimen. Furthermore, the system can be readily converted to a higher signal-to-noise ratio Hilbert phase microscopy thanks to the simultaneous acquisition of double interferograms. The performance of our system is verified using polymer beads, micropatterning poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), and embryo cells in the microchannels.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (4)

H. Hwang, G. Kang, J. H. Yeon, Y. Nam, and J.-K. Park, Lab Chip 9, 167 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, C. Y. Bae, G. Wee, Y.-M. Han, and J.-K. Park, Electrophoresis 30, 3276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Warger, II and C. A. Dimarzio, Opt. Express 17, 2400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Valadão and J. Bioucas-Dias, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 2093 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

W. C. Warger, II, J. A. Newmark, C. M. Warner, and C. A. DiMarzio, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034005 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Commun. 281, 880 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. L. Bliss, J. N. McMullin, and C. J. Backhouse, Lab Chip 7, 1280 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. El-Ali, P. K. Sorger, and K. F. Jensen, Nature 442, 403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Dittrich and A. Manz, Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery 5, 210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 31, 775 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

Backhouse, C. J.

C. L. Bliss, J. N. McMullin, and C. J. Backhouse, Lab Chip 7, 1280 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

Bae, C. Y.

M. S. Kim, C. Y. Bae, G. Wee, Y.-M. Han, and J.-K. Park, Electrophoresis 30, 3276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bioucas-Dias, J.

Bliss, C. L.

C. L. Bliss, J. N. McMullin, and C. J. Backhouse, Lab Chip 7, 1280 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booth, M.

E. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Commun. 281, 880 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Botcherby, E.

E. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Commun. 281, 880 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Colomb, T.

Cuche, E.

Dasari, R. R.

Deflores, L. P.

Depeursinge, C.

Dimarzio, C. A.

W. C. Warger, II and C. A. Dimarzio, Opt. Express 17, 2400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Warger, II, J. A. Newmark, C. M. Warner, and C. A. DiMarzio, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034005 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dittrich, P. S.

P. S. Dittrich and A. Manz, Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery 5, 210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

El-Ali, J.

J. El-Ali, P. K. Sorger, and K. F. Jensen, Nature 442, 403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emery, Y.

Feld, M. S.

Han, Y.-M.

M. S. Kim, C. Y. Bae, G. Wee, Y.-M. Han, and J.-K. Park, Electrophoresis 30, 3276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, H.

H. Hwang, G. Kang, J. H. Yeon, Y. Nam, and J.-K. Park, Lab Chip 9, 167 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, T.

Iwai, H.

Jensen, K. F.

J. El-Ali, P. K. Sorger, and K. F. Jensen, Nature 442, 403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juskaitis, R.

E. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Commun. 281, 880 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, G.

H. Hwang, G. Kang, J. H. Yeon, Y. Nam, and J.-K. Park, Lab Chip 9, 167 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M. S.

M. S. Kim, C. Y. Bae, G. Wee, Y.-M. Han, and J.-K. Park, Electrophoresis 30, 3276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magistretti, P. J.

Manz, A.

P. S. Dittrich and A. Manz, Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery 5, 210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marquet, P.

McMullin, J. N.

C. L. Bliss, J. N. McMullin, and C. J. Backhouse, Lab Chip 7, 1280 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, Y.

H. Hwang, G. Kang, J. H. Yeon, Y. Nam, and J.-K. Park, Lab Chip 9, 167 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newmark, J. A.

W. C. Warger, II, J. A. Newmark, C. M. Warner, and C. A. DiMarzio, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034005 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.-K.

H. Hwang, G. Kang, J. H. Yeon, Y. Nam, and J.-K. Park, Lab Chip 9, 167 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, C. Y. Bae, G. Wee, Y.-M. Han, and J.-K. Park, Electrophoresis 30, 3276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

Rappaz, B.

Sorger, P. K.

J. El-Ali, P. K. Sorger, and K. F. Jensen, Nature 442, 403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valadão, G.

Vaughan, J. C.

Warger, W. C.

W. C. Warger, II and C. A. Dimarzio, Opt. Express 17, 2400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Warger, II, J. A. Newmark, C. M. Warner, and C. A. DiMarzio, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034005 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warner, C. M.

W. C. Warger, II, J. A. Newmark, C. M. Warner, and C. A. DiMarzio, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034005 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wee, G.

M. S. Kim, C. Y. Bae, G. Wee, Y.-M. Han, and J.-K. Park, Electrophoresis 30, 3276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

E. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Commun. 281, 880 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yeon, J. H.

H. Hwang, G. Kang, J. H. Yeon, Y. Nam, and J.-K. Park, Lab Chip 9, 167 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electrophoresis (1)

M. S. Kim, C. Y. Bae, G. Wee, Y.-M. Han, and J.-K. Park, Electrophoresis 30, 3276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

W. C. Warger, II, J. A. Newmark, C. M. Warner, and C. A. DiMarzio, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034005 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lab Chip (2)

H. Hwang, G. Kang, J. H. Yeon, Y. Nam, and J.-K. Park, Lab Chip 9, 167 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Bliss, J. N. McMullin, and C. J. Backhouse, Lab Chip 7, 1280 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery (1)

P. S. Dittrich and A. Manz, Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery 5, 210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. El-Ali, P. K. Sorger, and K. F. Jensen, Nature 442, 403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Commun. 281, 880 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two distinct setups of our system: (a) a PSI and (b) an HPM setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated phase maps using our PSI setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase maps of a micropatterned PDMS sample using (a) WLSI, (b) PSI, and (c) HPM setup. (d) Average line profiles of a pattern using various methods.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results of bovine embryo: (a) phase contrast image of two-cell-stage bovine embryo in a microchannel using IX71, Olympus, (b) simultaneously formed double interferogram using our setup, (c) calculated OPL deviation, and (d) the OPL profile along the white dashed line in (c).

Equations (2)

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I i ( x ) = | I R | 2 + | I O | 2 + | I R I O | cos ( q ( x ) + Δ ϕ ( x ) + δ i ) ,
z ( x ) = 1 2 I 1 ̃ ( x ) + i P 2 π I 1 ̃ ( x ) x x d x ,

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