Abstract

We present an all-digital phase meter for precision length measurements using heterodyne laser interferometry. Our phase meter has a phase sensitivity of 3μrad/Hz at signal frequencies of 1Hz and above. We test the performance of our phase meter in an optical heterodyne interferometric configuration, using an active Sagnac interferometer test bed that is flexible and low noise. We demonstrate more than 70dB of laser frequency noise suppression to achieve an optical phase sensitivity of 5μrad/Hz and a corresponding displacement sensitivity of 0.5pm/Hz at signal frequencies above 10Hz. In addition, we demonstrate the ability of our phase meter to follow full fringe signals accurately at 100Hz and to track large signal excursions in excess of 105 fringes without cycle slipping. Finally, we demonstrate a cyclic error of 1pm/Hz, above 10Hz.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. N. Hansen, K. Carneiro, H. Haitjema, and L. De Chiffre, Ann. CIRP 55, 721 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Sasaki, K. Hane, and S. Okuma, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3697 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Shirinzadeh, Ind. Rob. 25, 35 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Agilent Laser and Optics User Manual (2002).
  5. G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. de Vine, D. S. Rabeling, B. J. J. Slagmolen, T. T.-Y. Lam, S. Chua, D. M. Wuchenich, D. E. McClelland, and D. A. Shaddock, Opt. Express 17, 828 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Fu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3785 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Bobroff, Meas. Sci. Technol. 4, 907 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

H. N. Hansen, K. Carneiro, H. Haitjema, and L. De Chiffre, Ann. CIRP 55, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. Shirinzadeh, Ind. Rob. 25, 35 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Fu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Sasaki, K. Hane, and S. Okuma, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

N. Bobroff, Meas. Sci. Technol. 4, 907 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bobroff, N.

N. Bobroff, Meas. Sci. Technol. 4, 907 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Braxmaier, C.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carneiro, K.

H. N. Hansen, K. Carneiro, H. Haitjema, and L. De Chiffre, Ann. CIRP 55, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S.

Danzmann, K.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Chiffre, L.

H. N. Hansen, K. Carneiro, H. Haitjema, and L. De Chiffre, Ann. CIRP 55, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Vine, G.

Fu, J.

J. Fu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, A.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haitjema, H.

H. N. Hansen, K. Carneiro, H. Haitjema, and L. De Chiffre, Ann. CIRP 55, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hane, K.

M. Sasaki, K. Hane, and S. Okuma, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, H. N.

H. N. Hansen, K. Carneiro, H. Haitjema, and L. De Chiffre, Ann. CIRP 55, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heinzel, G.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoyland, D.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jennrich, O.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johann, U.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lam, T. T.-Y.

McClelland, D. E.

Middleton, K.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okuma, S.

M. Sasaki, K. Hane, and S. Okuma, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rabeling, D. S.

Robertson, D.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rudiger, A.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

M. Sasaki, K. Hane, and S. Okuma, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, R.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shaddock, D. A.

Shirinzadeh, B.

B. Shirinzadeh, Ind. Rob. 25, 35 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Slagmolen, B. J. J.

Wand, V.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wuchenich, D. M.

Ann. CIRP (1)

H. N. Hansen, K. Carneiro, H. Haitjema, and L. De Chiffre, Ann. CIRP 55, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Class. Quantum Grav. (1)

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ind. Rob. (1)

B. Shirinzadeh, Ind. Rob. 25, 35 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

N. Bobroff, Meas. Sci. Technol. 4, 907 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

J. Fu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki, K. Hane, and S. Okuma, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Agilent Laser and Optics User Manual (2002).

Cited By

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of Sagnac interferometer test bed. PBS, polarizing beam splitter; λ / 2 , half-wave plate. ω A , center frequency of AOMs. (b) Block diagram of PLL. NCO, numerically controlled oscillator; G, controller; LPF, low-pass filter; I, integrator; S&DF, sum-and-dump filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral densities of ϕ PM and corresponding Δ L for: (i) signal field only; E sig E ref fields (ii) without and (iii) with enclosure; and (iv) electronic signals only. Measurement time, 20 s ; bandwidth, 50 mHz , 10 averages.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(i) Triangle-wave and (ii) sine-wave ϕ PM signals at (a) 0.1 Hz and (b) 100 Hz . (c) Multiple wavelength changes in the probe path length, Δ L . The inset shows the onset of signal in detail. (d) Linear phase ramp (dashed green line) with corresponding linear fit (solid red line) across 5 to 15 s . (e) Spectral density of linear fit minus data.

Equations (2)

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Δ L = λ ϕ PM 2 π .
| E sig | 2 = 1 2 ( E H 2 ( ω H + ω A ) + E V 2 ( ω V + ω A ) + 2 E H ( ω H + ω A ) E V ( ω V + ω A ) cos ( ϕ PM + ϕ N ) ) ,

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