Abstract

This investigation demonstrates leakage coupling between fundamental-mode and high-order mode resonance based on a periodical silica thin-film long-period grating (TFLPG) that was coated on a tapered fiber when wavelengths longer than the fundamental-mode cutoff were propagated. For the leaky guiding situation, these leakage modes still may exhibit strong mode coupling in the taper with the assistance of the TFLPG when the phase-matched condition is satisfied. An extremely high tuning efficiency of 62.9nm/°C, which is equivalent to a measurement of sensitivity of approximately 168,182nm per refractive index unit, is achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this sensitivity is the highest achieved for a fiber sensor to date.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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2010 (3)

K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, C.-L. Lee, P.-J. Jhuang, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and C. Lin, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 1057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Xuan, W. Jin, and S. Liu, Opt. Lett. 35, 85 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-L. Lee, Opt. Express 18, 14768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

D. K. C. Wu, B. T. Kuhlmey, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Lett. 34, 322 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chou, K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, S.-K. Liaw, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and S. Chi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cardenas-Sevilla, D. Monzon-Hernandez, I. Torres-Gomez, and A. Martinez-Rios, Opt. Commun. 282, 2823(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2004 (2)

S.-H. Jeong, J.-K. Kim, B.-S. Kim, S.-H. Shim, and B.-T. Lee, Vacuum 76, 507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Kakarantzas, S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, and P. St.J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 29, 694 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aizawa, Y.

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Andres, M. V.

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, and J. L. Cruz, Sens. Actuators B 73, 95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, S. R.

Birks, T. A.

Cardenas-Sevilla, G. A.

G. A. Cardenas-Sevilla, D. Monzon-Hernandez, I. Torres-Gomez, and A. Martinez-Rios, Opt. Commun. 282, 2823(2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, N.-K.

K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, C.-L. Lee, P.-J. Jhuang, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and C. Lin, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 1057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chou, K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, S.-K. Liaw, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and S. Chi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N.-K. Chen, D.-Y. Hsu, and S. Chi, Opt. Lett. 32, 2082 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chi, S.

S.-Y. Chou, K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, S.-K. Liaw, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and S. Chi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N.-K. Chen, D.-Y. Hsu, and S. Chi, Opt. Lett. 32, 2082 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chih, Y.-S.

K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, C.-L. Lee, P.-J. Jhuang, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and C. Lin, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 1057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chou, K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, S.-K. Liaw, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and S. Chi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Chou, K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, S.-K. Liaw, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and S. Chi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, and J. L. Cruz, Sens. Actuators B 73, 95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Diez, A.

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, and J. L. Cruz, Sens. Actuators B 73, 95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dimmick, T. E.

Ding, W.

Eggleton, B. J.

Erdogan, T.

D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, D.-Y.

Hsu, K.-C.

K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, C.-L. Lee, P.-J. Jhuang, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and C. Lin, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 1057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chou, K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, S.-K. Liaw, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and S. Chi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.-H.

S.-H. Jeong, J.-K. Kim, B.-S. Kim, S.-H. Shim, and B.-T. Lee, Vacuum 76, 507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jhuang, P.-J.

K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, C.-L. Lee, P.-J. Jhuang, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and C. Lin, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 1057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Kakarantzas, G.

Kawakami, S.

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.-S.

S.-H. Jeong, J.-K. Kim, B.-S. Kim, S.-H. Shim, and B.-T. Lee, Vacuum 76, 507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-K.

S.-H. Jeong, J.-K. Kim, B.-S. Kim, S.-H. Shim, and B.-T. Lee, Vacuum 76, 507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Lai, Y.

K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, C.-L. Lee, P.-J. Jhuang, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and C. Lin, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 1057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chou, K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, S.-K. Liaw, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and S. Chi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Le Roux, R.

Lee, B.-T.

S.-H. Jeong, J.-K. Kim, B.-S. Kim, S.-H. Shim, and B.-T. Lee, Vacuum 76, 507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-L.

C.-L. Lee, Opt. Express 18, 14768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, C.-L. Lee, P.-J. Jhuang, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and C. Lin, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 1057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Liaw, S.-K.

S.-Y. Chou, K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, S.-K. Liaw, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and S. Chi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, C.-L. Lee, P.-J. Jhuang, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and C. Lin, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 1057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Martinez-Rios, A.

G. A. Cardenas-Sevilla, D. Monzon-Hernandez, I. Torres-Gomez, and A. Martinez-Rios, Opt. Commun. 282, 2823(2009).
[CrossRef]

Monzon-Hernandez, D.

G. A. Cardenas-Sevilla, D. Monzon-Hernandez, I. Torres-Gomez, and A. Martinez-Rios, Opt. Commun. 282, 2823(2009).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

Russell, P. St.J.

Scarmozzino, R.

Shim, S.-H.

S.-H. Jeong, J.-K. Kim, B.-S. Kim, S.-H. Shim, and B.-T. Lee, Vacuum 76, 507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shiraishi, K.

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stegall, D. B.

D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Torres-Gomez, I.

G. A. Cardenas-Sevilla, D. Monzon-Hernandez, I. Torres-Gomez, and A. Martinez-Rios, Opt. Commun. 282, 2823(2009).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wu, D. K. C.

Xuan, H.

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, C.-L. Lee, P.-J. Jhuang, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and C. Lin, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 1057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chou, K.-C. Hsu, N.-K. Chen, S.-K. Liaw, Y.-S. Chih, Y. Lai, and S. Chi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. A. Cardenas-Sevilla, D. Monzon-Hernandez, I. Torres-Gomez, and A. Martinez-Rios, Opt. Commun. 282, 2823(2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Sens. Actuators B (1)

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, and J. L. Cruz, Sens. Actuators B 73, 95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

S.-H. Jeong, J.-K. Kim, B.-S. Kim, S.-H. Shim, and B.-T. Lee, Vacuum 76, 507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Proposed TFLPG on tapered fiber and (b) SEM photograph of a portion of the uniform waist.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective index of fundamental mode (solid curve) of 30 μm taper with index-matched liquid (dashed curve) surroundings. Insets (a) and (b) present the simulated and experimental results of the cutoff spectra for the taper without TFLPG.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectra of leakage coupling of the device with Λ = 200 μm and L = 1.2 cm in the attenuation wavelength region. Inset (a) shows shifts (▪) and attenuations (•) of the resonant wavelengths associated with the first dip as the surroundings vary. Inset (b) presents the attenuation region for the taper with and without the TFLPG.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectra of the device with Λ = 240 μm and L = 1.5 cm in the attenuation region. Inset, shift of the first two resonant peaks as the surroundings vary.

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