Abstract

Low-temperature electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire light-emitting arrays is reported. By inserting a thin MgO current blocking layer in between ZnO nanowire and p-GaN, high-purity UV light emission at wavelength 398nm was obtained. As the temperature is decreased, contrary to the typical GaN-based light emitting diodes, our device shows a decrease of optical output intensity. The results are associated with various carrier tunneling processes and frozen MgO defects.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. X. Zhang, S. Chua, A. Yong, H. Yang, S. Lau, S. Yu, X. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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2010 (4)

Y. Bie, Z. Liao, P. Wang, Y. Zhou, X. Han, Y. Ye, Q. Zhao, X. Wu, L. Dai, and J. Xu, Adv. Mater. 22, 4284 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Lupan, T. Pauporte, and B. Viana, Adv. Mater. 22, 3298 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Lupan, T. Pauporte, B. Viana, I. Tiginyanu, V. Ursaki, and R. Cortes, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 2083 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Weng, S. Chang, C. Hsu, S. Chang, and T. Hsueh, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H866 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. Sun, Y. Lu, Y. Liu, D. Shen, Z. Zhang, B. Li, J. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Zhao, and X. Fan, J. Phys. D 41, 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Krunks, A. Katerski, T. Dedova, I. Oja Acik, and A. Mere, Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 92, 1016 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C. Chen, M. Ke, C. Liu, Y. Chang, F. Yang, and J. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, W. Fang, W. Liu, H. Liu, C. Mo, L. Wang, and F. Jiang, J. Lumin. 122, 567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Chua, A. Yong, H. Yang, S. Lau, S. Yu, X. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Leprince-Wang, A. Yacoubi-Ouslim, and G. Wang, Microelectronics J. 36, 625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Wang and L. Gao, Solid State Commun. 132, 269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Wu, H. Cao, and R. Chang, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

W. Park, Y. Jun, S. Jung, and G. Yi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, S. LeBoeuf, L. Rowland, C. Yan, and H. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Alivov, J. Van Nostrand, D. Look, M. Chukichev, and B. Ataev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2943 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

C. Lee, T. Lee, S. Lyu, Y. Zhang, H. Ruh, and H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and L. Zhang, Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Li, Y. Lu, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Brown, M. Schurman, L. Koszi, and R. Stall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. Maserjian and N. Zamani, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 559 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

J. Yeargan and H. Taylor, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5600 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

Y. Varshni, Physica 34, 149 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Acik, I. Oja

M. Krunks, A. Katerski, T. Dedova, I. Oja Acik, and A. Mere, Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 92, 1016 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Y.

Y. Alivov, J. Van Nostrand, D. Look, M. Chukichev, and B. Ataev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2943 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ataev, B.

Y. Alivov, J. Van Nostrand, D. Look, M. Chukichev, and B. Ataev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2943 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bie, Y.

Y. Bie, Z. Liao, P. Wang, Y. Zhou, X. Han, Y. Ye, Q. Zhao, X. Wu, L. Dai, and J. Xu, Adv. Mater. 22, 4284 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, M.

Y. Li, Y. Lu, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Brown, M. Schurman, L. Koszi, and R. Stall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

X. Liu, X. Wu, H. Cao, and R. Chang, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X.

X. Cao, S. LeBoeuf, L. Rowland, C. Yan, and H. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R.

X. Liu, X. Wu, H. Cao, and R. Chang, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.

W. Weng, S. Chang, C. Hsu, S. Chang, and T. Hsueh, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H866 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Weng, S. Chang, C. Hsu, S. Chang, and T. Hsueh, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H866 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.

C. Chen, M. Ke, C. Liu, Y. Chang, F. Yang, and J. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, M. Ke, C. Liu, Y. Chang, F. Yang, and J. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S.

X. Zhang, S. Chua, A. Yong, H. Yang, S. Lau, S. Yu, X. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chukichev, M.

Y. Alivov, J. Van Nostrand, D. Look, M. Chukichev, and B. Ataev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2943 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cortes, R.

O. Lupan, T. Pauporte, B. Viana, I. Tiginyanu, V. Ursaki, and R. Cortes, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 2083 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

Y. Bie, Z. Liao, P. Wang, Y. Zhou, X. Han, Y. Ye, Q. Zhao, X. Wu, L. Dai, and J. Xu, Adv. Mater. 22, 4284 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dedova, T.

M. Krunks, A. Katerski, T. Dedova, I. Oja Acik, and A. Mere, Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 92, 1016 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

J. Sun, Y. Lu, Y. Liu, D. Shen, Z. Zhang, B. Li, J. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Zhao, and X. Fan, J. Phys. D 41, 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fang, W.

Y. Li, W. Fang, W. Liu, H. Liu, C. Mo, L. Wang, and F. Jiang, J. Lumin. 122, 567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

J. Wang and L. Gao, Solid State Commun. 132, 269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, X.

Y. Bie, Z. Liao, P. Wang, Y. Zhou, X. Han, Y. Ye, Q. Zhao, X. Wu, L. Dai, and J. Xu, Adv. Mater. 22, 4284 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C.

W. Weng, S. Chang, C. Hsu, S. Chang, and T. Hsueh, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H866 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, T.

W. Weng, S. Chang, C. Hsu, S. Chang, and T. Hsueh, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H866 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

C. Chen, M. Ke, C. Liu, Y. Chang, F. Yang, and J. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, F.

Y. Li, W. Fang, W. Liu, H. Liu, C. Mo, L. Wang, and F. Jiang, J. Lumin. 122, 567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jun, Y.

W. Park, Y. Jun, S. Jung, and G. Yi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.

W. Park, Y. Jun, S. Jung, and G. Yi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Katerski, A.

M. Krunks, A. Katerski, T. Dedova, I. Oja Acik, and A. Mere, Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 92, 1016 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ke, M.

C. Chen, M. Ke, C. Liu, Y. Chang, F. Yang, and J. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koszi, L.

Y. Li, Y. Lu, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Brown, M. Schurman, L. Koszi, and R. Stall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krunks, M.

M. Krunks, A. Katerski, T. Dedova, I. Oja Acik, and A. Mere, Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 92, 1016 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lau, S.

X. Zhang, S. Chua, A. Yong, H. Yang, S. Lau, S. Yu, X. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

LeBoeuf, S.

X. Cao, S. LeBoeuf, L. Rowland, C. Yan, and H. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

C. Lee, T. Lee, S. Lyu, Y. Zhang, H. Ruh, and H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

C. Lee, T. Lee, S. Lyu, Y. Zhang, H. Ruh, and H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.

C. Lee, T. Lee, S. Lyu, Y. Zhang, H. Ruh, and H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leprince-Wang, Y.

Y. Leprince-Wang, A. Yacoubi-Ouslim, and G. Wang, Microelectronics J. 36, 625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

J. Sun, Y. Lu, Y. Liu, D. Shen, Z. Zhang, B. Li, J. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Zhao, and X. Fan, J. Phys. D 41, 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, W. Fang, W. Liu, H. Liu, C. Mo, L. Wang, and F. Jiang, J. Lumin. 122, 567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, Y. Lu, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Brown, M. Schurman, L. Koszi, and R. Stall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Z.

Y. Bie, Z. Liao, P. Wang, Y. Zhou, X. Han, Y. Ye, Q. Zhao, X. Wu, L. Dai, and J. Xu, Adv. Mater. 22, 4284 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

C. Chen, M. Ke, C. Liu, Y. Chang, F. Yang, and J. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Y. Li, W. Fang, W. Liu, H. Liu, C. Mo, L. Wang, and F. Jiang, J. Lumin. 122, 567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, S. LeBoeuf, L. Rowland, C. Yan, and H. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

Y. Li, W. Fang, W. Liu, H. Liu, C. Mo, L. Wang, and F. Jiang, J. Lumin. 122, 567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, X. Wu, H. Cao, and R. Chang, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

J. Sun, Y. Lu, Y. Liu, D. Shen, Z. Zhang, B. Li, J. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Zhao, and X. Fan, J. Phys. D 41, 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Look, D.

Y. Alivov, J. Van Nostrand, D. Look, M. Chukichev, and B. Ataev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2943 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

J. Sun, Y. Lu, Y. Liu, D. Shen, Z. Zhang, B. Li, J. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Zhao, and X. Fan, J. Phys. D 41, 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, Y. Lu, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Brown, M. Schurman, L. Koszi, and R. Stall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lupan, O.

O. Lupan, T. Pauporte, and B. Viana, Adv. Mater. 22, 3298 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Lupan, T. Pauporte, B. Viana, I. Tiginyanu, V. Ursaki, and R. Cortes, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 2083 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lyu, S.

C. Lee, T. Lee, S. Lyu, Y. Zhang, H. Ruh, and H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maserjian, J.

J. Maserjian and N. Zamani, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 559 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mere, A.

M. Krunks, A. Katerski, T. Dedova, I. Oja Acik, and A. Mere, Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 92, 1016 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miao, L.

X. Zhang, S. Chua, A. Yong, H. Yang, S. Lau, S. Yu, X. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mo, C.

Y. Li, W. Fang, W. Liu, H. Liu, C. Mo, L. Wang, and F. Jiang, J. Lumin. 122, 567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, W.

W. Park, Y. Jun, S. Jung, and G. Yi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pauporte, T.

O. Lupan, T. Pauporte, B. Viana, I. Tiginyanu, V. Ursaki, and R. Cortes, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 2083 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Lupan, T. Pauporte, and B. Viana, Adv. Mater. 22, 3298 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rowland, L.

X. Cao, S. LeBoeuf, L. Rowland, C. Yan, and H. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ruh, H.

C. Lee, T. Lee, S. Lyu, Y. Zhang, H. Ruh, and H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schurman, M.

Y. Li, Y. Lu, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Brown, M. Schurman, L. Koszi, and R. Stall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.

J. Sun, Y. Lu, Y. Liu, D. Shen, Z. Zhang, B. Li, J. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Zhao, and X. Fan, J. Phys. D 41, 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

Y. Li, Y. Lu, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Brown, M. Schurman, L. Koszi, and R. Stall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stall, R.

Y. Li, Y. Lu, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Brown, M. Schurman, L. Koszi, and R. Stall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

J. Sun, Y. Lu, Y. Liu, D. Shen, Z. Zhang, B. Li, J. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Zhao, and X. Fan, J. Phys. D 41, 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

X. Zhang, S. Chua, A. Yong, H. Yang, S. Lau, S. Yu, X. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanemura, M.

X. Zhang, S. Chua, A. Yong, H. Yang, S. Lau, S. Yu, X. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanemura, S.

X. Zhang, S. Chua, A. Yong, H. Yang, S. Lau, S. Yu, X. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H.

J. Yeargan and H. Taylor, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5600 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Tiginyanu, I.

O. Lupan, T. Pauporte, B. Viana, I. Tiginyanu, V. Ursaki, and R. Cortes, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 2083 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ursaki, V.

O. Lupan, T. Pauporte, B. Viana, I. Tiginyanu, V. Ursaki, and R. Cortes, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 2083 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Nostrand, J.

Y. Alivov, J. Van Nostrand, D. Look, M. Chukichev, and B. Ataev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2943 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varshni, Y.

Y. Varshni, Physica 34, 149 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Viana, B.

O. Lupan, T. Pauporte, and B. Viana, Adv. Mater. 22, 3298 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Lupan, T. Pauporte, B. Viana, I. Tiginyanu, V. Ursaki, and R. Cortes, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 2083 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

Y. Leprince-Wang, A. Yacoubi-Ouslim, and G. Wang, Microelectronics J. 36, 625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang and L. Gao, Solid State Commun. 132, 269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Y. Li, W. Fang, W. Liu, H. Liu, C. Mo, L. Wang, and F. Jiang, J. Lumin. 122, 567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Y. Bie, Z. Liao, P. Wang, Y. Zhou, X. Han, Y. Ye, Q. Zhao, X. Wu, L. Dai, and J. Xu, Adv. Mater. 22, 4284 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weng, W.

W. Weng, S. Chang, C. Hsu, S. Chang, and T. Hsueh, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H866 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wraback, M.

Y. Li, Y. Lu, H. Shen, M. Wraback, M. Brown, M. Schurman, L. Koszi, and R. Stall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2458 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

Y. Bie, Z. Liao, P. Wang, Y. Zhou, X. Han, Y. Ye, Q. Zhao, X. Wu, L. Dai, and J. Xu, Adv. Mater. 22, 4284 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, X. Wu, H. Cao, and R. Chang, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Y. Bie, Z. Liao, P. Wang, Y. Zhou, X. Han, Y. Ye, Q. Zhao, X. Wu, L. Dai, and J. Xu, Adv. Mater. 22, 4284 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yacoubi-Ouslim, A.

Y. Leprince-Wang, A. Yacoubi-Ouslim, and G. Wang, Microelectronics J. 36, 625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yan, C.

X. Cao, S. LeBoeuf, L. Rowland, C. Yan, and H. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

C. Chen, M. Ke, C. Liu, Y. Chang, F. Yang, and J. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

X. Zhang, S. Chua, A. Yong, H. Yang, S. Lau, S. Yu, X. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B.

J. Sun, Y. Lu, Y. Liu, D. Shen, Z. Zhang, B. Li, J. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Zhao, and X. Fan, J. Phys. D 41, 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Y.

Y. Bie, Z. Liao, P. Wang, Y. Zhou, X. Han, Y. Ye, Q. Zhao, X. Wu, L. Dai, and J. Xu, Adv. Mater. 22, 4284 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeargan, J.

J. Yeargan and H. Taylor, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5600 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G.

W. Park, Y. Jun, S. Jung, and G. Yi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yong, A.

X. Zhang, S. Chua, A. Yong, H. Yang, S. Lau, S. Yu, X. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

X. Zhang, S. Chua, A. Yong, H. Yang, S. Lau, S. Yu, X. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zamani, N.

J. Maserjian and N. Zamani, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 559 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Sun, Y. Lu, Y. Liu, D. Shen, Z. Zhang, B. Li, J. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Zhao, and X. Fan, J. Phys. D 41, 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and L. Zhang, Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

J. Zhang and L. Zhang, Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, S. Chua, A. Yong, H. Yang, S. Lau, S. Yu, X. Sun, L. Miao, M. Tanemura, and S. Tanemura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

C. Lee, T. Lee, S. Lyu, Y. Zhang, H. Ruh, and H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of the nanowire arrays grown on p-GaN/MgO. (b) SEM image of the ZnO nanowire arrays coated with SiN x . (c) Schematic diagram of ZnO nanowire LED arrays on MgO and p-GaN thin films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Room-temperature PL spectrum of ZnO nanowire arrays grown directly on sapphire substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

EL spectra of the ZnO nanowire LED arrays at various temperatures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Band diagram of the ZnO nanowires on MgO and p-GaN thin films.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature dependence of the (a) peak intensity and (b) peak wavelength in the EL spectra.

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