Abstract

A laser printing technique was used to fabricate split-ring resonators (SRRs) on Si substrates for terahertz (THz) metamaterials and their resonance behavior evaluated by THz time-domain spectroscopy. The laser-printed Ag SRRs exhibited sharp edge definition and excellent thickness uniformity, which resulted in an electromagnetic response similar to that from identical Au SRR structures prepared by conventional photolithography. These results demonstrate that laser printing is a practical alternative to conventional photolithography for fabricating metamaterial structures at terahertz frequencies, since it allows their design to be easily modified and optimized.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010

J. Wang, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. Charipar, and A. Piqué, Adv. Mater. 22, 4462 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, A. J. Birnbaum, M. Zalalutdinov, S. A. Mathews, and A. Piqué, Appl. Phys. A 97, 513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Noguchi, T. Sekitani, T. Yokota, and T. Someya, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Piqué, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, K. M. Metkus, and S. A. Mathews, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 3, 163 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and W. Zhang, Opt. Express 16, 6537 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 315, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

W. J. Padilla, A. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. B. Pendry and D. R. Smith, Phys. Today 57, 37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basove, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

P. Gay-Balmaz and O. J. F. Martin, J. Appl. Phys. 92 (5), 2929 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Auyeung, R. C. Y.

J. Wang, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. Charipar, and A. Piqué, Adv. Mater. 22, 4462 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, A. J. Birnbaum, M. Zalalutdinov, S. A. Mathews, and A. Piqué, Appl. Phys. A 97, 513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Piqué, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, K. M. Metkus, and S. A. Mathews, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 3, 163 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

W. J. Padilla, A. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basove, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basove, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birnbaum, A. J.

R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, A. J. Birnbaum, M. Zalalutdinov, S. A. Mathews, and A. Piqué, Appl. Phys. A 97, 513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Charipar, N.

J. Wang, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. Charipar, and A. Piqué, Adv. Mater. 22, 4462 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chrisey, D. B.

A. Piqué and D. B. Chrisey, Direct-Write Technologies for Rapid Prototyping Applications: Sensors, Electronics, and Integrated Power Sources (Academic, 2002).
[PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basove, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gay-Balmaz, P.

P. Gay-Balmaz and O. J. F. Martin, J. Appl. Phys. 92 (5), 2929 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, A. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

J. Wang, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. Charipar, and A. Piqué, Adv. Mater. 22, 4462 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, A. J. Birnbaum, M. Zalalutdinov, S. A. Mathews, and A. Piqué, Appl. Phys. A 97, 513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Piqué, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, K. M. Metkus, and S. A. Mathews, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 3, 163 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Korvink, J. G.

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, Th.

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, A. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 315, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loffelmann, U.

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Gay-Balmaz and O. J. F. Martin, J. Appl. Phys. 92 (5), 2929 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mathews, S. A.

R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, A. J. Birnbaum, M. Zalalutdinov, S. A. Mathews, and A. Piqué, Appl. Phys. A 97, 513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Piqué, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, K. M. Metkus, and S. A. Mathews, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 3, 163 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meier, H.

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Metkus, K. M.

A. Piqué, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, K. M. Metkus, and S. A. Mathews, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 3, 163 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, Y.

Y. Noguchi, T. Sekitani, T. Yokota, and T. Someya, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. F.

Ortner, A.

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

W. J. Padilla, A. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basove, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry and D. R. Smith, Phys. Today 57, 37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basove, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Piqué, A.

J. Wang, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. Charipar, and A. Piqué, Adv. Mater. 22, 4462 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, A. J. Birnbaum, M. Zalalutdinov, S. A. Mathews, and A. Piqué, Appl. Phys. A 97, 513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Piqué, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, K. M. Metkus, and S. A. Mathews, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 3, 163 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Piqué and D. B. Chrisey, Direct-Write Technologies for Rapid Prototyping Applications: Sensors, Electronics, and Integrated Power Sources (Academic, 2002).
[PubMed]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekitani, T.

Y. Noguchi, T. Sekitani, T. Yokota, and T. Someya, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

Smirnova, E.

Smith, D. R.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basove, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry and D. R. Smith, Phys. Today 57, 37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, P. J.

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Someya, T.

Y. Noguchi, T. Sekitani, T. Yokota, and T. Someya, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 315, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A.

W. J. Padilla, A. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basove, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, M.

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. Charipar, and A. Piqué, Adv. Mater. 22, 4462 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 315, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basove, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokota, T.

Y. Noguchi, T. Sekitani, T. Yokota, and T. Someya, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zalalutdinov, M.

R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, A. J. Birnbaum, M. Zalalutdinov, S. A. Mathews, and A. Piqué, Appl. Phys. A 97, 513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basove, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

J. Wang, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. Charipar, and A. Piqué, Adv. Mater. 22, 4462 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A

R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, A. J. Birnbaum, M. Zalalutdinov, S. A. Mathews, and A. Piqué, Appl. Phys. A 97, 513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Noguchi, T. Sekitani, T. Yokota, and T. Someya, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

P. Gay-Balmaz and O. J. F. Martin, J. Appl. Phys. 92 (5), 2929 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.

A. Piqué, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, K. M. Metkus, and S. A. Mathews, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 3, 163 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

W. J. Padilla, A. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today

J. B. Pendry and D. R. Smith, Phys. Today 57, 37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basove, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 315, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. Piqué and D. B. Chrisey, Direct-Write Technologies for Rapid Prototyping Applications: Sensors, Electronics, and Integrated Power Sources (Academic, 2002).
[PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) and (b) SEM images of laser-printed Ag SRR structures with two different dimensions on Si substrate, each generated with a single laser pulse ( 70 mJ / cm 2 ). (c) and (d) Optical microscope images of the apertures used for laser printing in (a) and (b), respectively (backside- illumination). (e) High magnification SEM image of the top surface of one of the SRR structures in (b), showing an average Ag grain size of 100 nm . Samples were cured at 200 °C for 1 h in an oven.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM image of laser-printed Ag SRR structures after multiple printing passes (top, five passes; middle, three passes; bottom, one pass). The heights of the SRRs are 2.5, 1.5, and 0.5 μm , respectively. (b) AFM image of single-print-pass SRR structure after curing at 200 °C . (c) and (d) SEM images of double square SRRs and single circular SRRs laser printed on Si substrates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical microscope image and (b) SEM image of SRR structures printed on Si substrate. (c) SEM image of a single SRR structure with geometrical parameters: L = 48 μm , g = 8 μm , w = 6 μm , and P = 100 μm . Measured transmission spectra of both laser-printed Ag SRRs (closed circle) and conventionally etched Au SRRs (open square) for the electric field polarization (d) perpendicular ( E ) and (e) parallel ( E ) to the SRR gap. The simulated transmission spectra (solid line) are also shown for both orientations.

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