Abstract

We present a photonically enabled rf arbitrary waveform generator that can rapidly switch between two output waveforms. This method is based on line-by-line shaping of an optical comb and then converting the optical pulses to rf waveforms with a fast photodetector. It uses a single diode laser as the optical source and selects different patterns preprogrammed into an optical pulse shaper by shifting the laser frequency. We demonstrate minimum update delay times of 0.45ns.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. M. Weiner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. D. McKinney, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 27, 1345 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Chou, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M. T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 2701 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett 21, 1287 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 226 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 58, 1 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 32, 3242 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Caraquitena and J. Marti, Opt. Lett. 34, 2084 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Olesen and G. Jacobsen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 2069 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Murata, I. Mito, and K. Kobayashi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 835 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. E. Simsarian, M. C. Larson, H. E. Garrett, H. Xu, and T. A. Strand, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 565 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Pantouvaki, C. C. Renaud, P. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, R. Gwilliam, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 58, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett 21, 1287 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Caraquitena and J. Marti, Opt. Lett. 34, 2084 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. Pantouvaki, C. C. Renaud, P. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, R. Gwilliam, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 32, 3242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. E. Simsarian, M. C. Larson, H. E. Garrett, H. Xu, and T. A. Strand, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M. T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 2701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 226 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Chou, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

A. M. Weiner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1987

S. Murata, I. Mito, and K. Kobayashi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 835 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982

H. Olesen and G. Jacobsen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 2069 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cannard, P.

M. Pantouvaki, C. C. Renaud, P. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, R. Gwilliam, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caraquitena, J.

Choi, M. T.

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M. T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 2701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chou, J.

J. Chou, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P. J.

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M. T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 2701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, H. E.

J. E. Simsarian, M. C. Larson, H. E. Garrett, H. Xu, and T. A. Strand, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gee, S.

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M. T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 2701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gwilliam, R.

M. Pantouvaki, C. C. Renaud, P. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, R. Gwilliam, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hamidi, E.

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 58, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

J. Chou, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. B.

C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett 21, 1287 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 32, 3242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izadpanah, H.

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M. T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 2701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, G.

H. Olesen and G. Jacobsen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 2069 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

J. Chou, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

S. Murata, I. Mito, and K. Kobayashi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 835 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Larson, M. C.

J. E. Simsarian, M. C. Larson, H. E. Garrett, H. Xu, and T. A. Strand, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 58, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett 21, 1287 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 32, 3242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. McKinney, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 27, 1345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M. T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 2701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, I. S.

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 226 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

McKinney, J. D.

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 226 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. D. McKinney, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 27, 1345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mito, I.

S. Murata, I. Mito, and K. Kobayashi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 835 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Murata, S.

S. Murata, I. Mito, and K. Kobayashi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 835 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Olesen, H.

H. Olesen and G. Jacobsen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 2069 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ozharar, S.

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M. T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 2701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pantouvaki, M.

M. Pantouvaki, C. C. Renaud, P. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, R. Gwilliam, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quinlan, F.

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M. T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 2701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Renaud, C. C.

M. Pantouvaki, C. C. Renaud, P. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, R. Gwilliam, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, M. J.

M. Pantouvaki, C. C. Renaud, P. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, R. Gwilliam, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seeds, A. J.

M. Pantouvaki, C. C. Renaud, P. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, R. Gwilliam, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simsarian, J. E.

J. E. Simsarian, M. C. Larson, H. E. Garrett, H. Xu, and T. A. Strand, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Strand, T. A.

J. E. Simsarian, M. C. Larson, H. E. Garrett, H. Xu, and T. A. Strand, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 58, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett 21, 1287 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 32, 3242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 226 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. D. McKinney, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 27, 1345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

J. E. Simsarian, M. C. Larson, H. E. Garrett, H. Xu, and T. A. Strand, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yilmaz, T.

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M. T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 2701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. Olesen and G. Jacobsen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 2069 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. Murata, I. Mito, and K. Kobayashi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 835 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Pantouvaki, C. C. Renaud, P. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, R. Gwilliam, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett.

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 226 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett

C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett 21, 1287 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.

J. E. Simsarian, M. C. Larson, H. E. Garrett, H. Xu, and T. A. Strand, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Chou, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 58, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Tech.

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M. T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 2701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. M. Weiner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental setup: PM, phase modulator; IM, intensity modulator; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and PD: photodiode. Bottom row, signal at various stages: 1, time-multiplexed wavelength generation, 2, combs, 3, shaped combs, and 4, rf waveforms.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Modulated laser spectrum measured by heterodyne detection. Pulse shaper output showing (b) full and (c) shaped spectra measured by an optical spectrum analyzer with 0.01 nm resolution. The programmed transmission function is displayed as zeros and ones. Time-multiplexed rf waveforms: sinusoids at (d) 20.4 and (e) 40.8 GHz .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Waveforms composed of transform- limited pulses. (a) Output when the pulse shaper transmits all lines or (b) only half of the dual comb. Waveform during (c) steady state and (d) transition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Detected signal and (b) spectrogram for a waveform switching from a pulse train to a 40.8 GHz sinusoid. Contour lines indicate a 10% increase in signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sinusoid with rapid phase shift of π radians. Full waveform with both halves (a) in phase and (b) out of phase. Details of waveform for (c) in-phase and (d) out-of-phase conditions.

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