Abstract

We present a method for analyzing the wavefront of optical vortices that does not involve interferometry but rather uses surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). We employ a subwavelength slit in a gold film to cut slices from an optical vortex beam and measure the diffraction of the generated SPPs by scattering them off a second slit. By moving the slits across the vortex beam, we create a tomogram, from which we can determine the vortex charge of the incident beam at a glance. We present results for vortex beams of integer- and half-integer-vortex charge.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2001), Vol. 42, pp. 219–276.
    [CrossRef]
  2. L.Allen, S.M.Barnett, and M.J.Padgett, eds., Optical Angular Momentum (IOP, 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Foo, D. M. Palacios, and G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., Opt. Lett. 30, 3308 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Jesacher, A. Schwaighofer, S. Fürhapter, C. Maurer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Opt. Express 15, 5801 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Baranova, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, N. F. Pilipetskii, and V. V. Shkunov, JETP Lett. 33, 195 (1981).
  6. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Padgett, J. Arlt, N. Simpson, and L. Allen, Am. J. Phys. 64, 77 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. C. G. Berkhout and M. W. Beijersbergen, J. Opt. A 11, 094021 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1990).
  13. H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, J. Opt. A 6, S288 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

G. C. G. Berkhout and M. W. Beijersbergen, J. Opt. A 11, 094021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

G. Foo, D. M. Palacios, and G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., Opt. Lett. 30, 3308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, J. Opt. A 6, S288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. Padgett, J. Arlt, N. Simpson, and L. Allen, Am. J. Phys. 64, 77 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1990).

1981 (1)

N. Baranova, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, N. F. Pilipetskii, and V. V. Shkunov, JETP Lett. 33, 195 (1981).

’t Hooft, G. W.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, J. Opt. A 6, S288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alkemade, P. F. A.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

M. Padgett, J. Arlt, N. Simpson, and L. Allen, Am. J. Phys. 64, 77 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arlt, J.

M. Padgett, J. Arlt, N. Simpson, and L. Allen, Am. J. Phys. 64, 77 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baranova, N.

N. Baranova, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, N. F. Pilipetskii, and V. V. Shkunov, JETP Lett. 33, 195 (1981).

Barnett, S. M.

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bazhenov, V. Yu.

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1990).

Beijersbergen, M. W.

G. C. G. Berkhout and M. W. Beijersbergen, J. Opt. A 11, 094021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berkhout, G. C. G.

G. C. G. Berkhout and M. W. Beijersbergen, J. Opt. A 11, 094021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernet, S.

Blok, H.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courtial, J.

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubois, G.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eliel, E. R.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, J. Opt. A 6, S288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Foo, G.

Franke-Arnold, S.

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fürhapter, S.

Gbur, G.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, M.

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, C. A.

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jesacher, A.

Kloosterboer, J. G.

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, J. Opt. A 6, S288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmin, N.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leach, J.

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenstra, D.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mair, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mamaev, A. V.

N. Baranova, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, N. F. Pilipetskii, and V. V. Shkunov, JETP Lett. 33, 195 (1981).

Maurer, C.

Oemrawsingh, S. S. R.

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, J. Opt. A 6, S288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M.

M. Padgett, J. Arlt, N. Simpson, and L. Allen, Am. J. Phys. 64, 77 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palacios, D. M.

Pilipetskii, N. F.

N. Baranova, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, N. F. Pilipetskii, and V. V. Shkunov, JETP Lett. 33, 195 (1981).

Ritsch-Marte, M.

Schouten, H. F.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwaighofer, A.

Shkunov, V. V.

N. Baranova, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, N. F. Pilipetskii, and V. V. Shkunov, JETP Lett. 33, 195 (1981).

Simpson, N.

M. Padgett, J. Arlt, N. Simpson, and L. Allen, Am. J. Phys. 64, 77 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soskin, M. S.

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1990).

M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2001), Vol. 42, pp. 219–276.
[CrossRef]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swartzlander, G. A.

Tapster, P. R.

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasnetsov, M. V.

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1990).

M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2001), Vol. 42, pp. 219–276.
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, J. M.

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaziri, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verstegen, E. J. K.

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, J. Opt. A 6, S288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Visser, T. D.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woerdman, J. P.

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, J. Opt. A 6, S288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zel’dovich, B. Ya.

N. Baranova, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, N. F. Pilipetskii, and V. V. Shkunov, JETP Lett. 33, 195 (1981).

Am. J. Phys. (1)

M. Padgett, J. Arlt, N. Simpson, and L. Allen, Am. J. Phys. 64, 77 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (2)

G. C. G. Berkhout and M. W. Beijersbergen, J. Opt. A 11, 094021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, J. Opt. A 6, S288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (2)

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, JETP Lett. 52, 429 (1990).

N. Baranova, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, N. F. Pilipetskii, and V. V. Shkunov, JETP Lett. 33, 195 (1981).

Nature (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2001), Vol. 42, pp. 219–276.
[CrossRef]

L.Allen, S.M.Barnett, and M.J.Padgett, eds., Optical Angular Momentum (IOP, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. The appropriate diffraction order of the fork hologram is selected by means of an aperture (not shown); the others are blocked.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)–(c) Calculated and (d)–(f) experimental tomograms for beams on slits separated by 25 μm , with vortex charge (a) and (d) Q = + 1 , (b) and (e) Q = 1 , and (c) and (f) Q = 3 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)–(c) Calculated and (d)–(f) experimental tomograms for a Q = 1 vortex beam on slits separated by distances of (a) and (d) 25 μm , (b) and (e) 50 μm , and (c) and (f) 75 μm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Calculated intensity pattern of a Q = 3 vortex beam. Three important cross sections are indicated by vertical lines. (b) Calculated tomogram for a Q = 3 vortex beam on slits separated by 25 μm [see Fig. 2c]. The indicated cross sections are identical to those of Fig. 4a. Local minima and maxima in the tomograms are marked by × and ○, respectively. These marks correspond to those in the diffraction patterns depicted schematically at right: (c) a single slit under oblique incidence, (d) a double slit under oblique incidence, such that the local field at the slits is in phase, and (e) a double slit in antiphase.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Far-field diffraction pattern of a Q = + 3 1 2 vortex beam; (b) calculated and (c) experimental result for this beam on slits separated by 75 μm . Three intensity nodes are visible, but they are not arranged along a straight line.

Metrics