Abstract

We report an experimental study of low-frequency (~10 kHz) self-pulsing of the output intensity in a high- concentration erbium-doped fiber laser. We suggest that the fast intensity fluctuations caused by multimode and polarization instabilities play the role of an external noise source, leading to low-frequency auto-oscillations through a coherence resonance scenario.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. D. Van Wiggeren and R. Roy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097903(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. D. Van Wiggeren and R. Roy, Opt. Commun. 164, 107(1999).
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  3. Q. L. Williams, J. Garcıa-Ojalvo, and R. Roy, Phys. Rev. A 55, 2376 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Yu. O. Barmenkov and A. V. Kir’yanov, Opt. Express 12, 3171 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Sergeyev, K. O’Mahoney, S. Popov, and A. T. Friberg, Central Eur. J. Phys. 8, 159 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Voigt, M. O. Lenz, F. Mitschke, E. Roldan, and G. J. de Valcarcel, Appl. Phys. B 79, 175 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. L. Boudec, P. L. Francois, E. Delevaque, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 501 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. M. Peters and S. N. Houde-Walter, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 162 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Lægsgaard, Phys. Rev. B 65, 174114 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Tammela, M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, H. Valkonen, S. Sarkilahti, and K. Janka, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, Vol. 1, 2003 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 376–377.
  11. S. Sergeyev and D. Khoptyar, Proc. SPIE 6610, 66100L(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Pikovsky and J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 775 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. F. Martinez Avila, H. L. D. de S. Cavalcante, and J. R. Rios Leite, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 144101 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Lacasta, F. Sagues, and J. M. Sancho, Phys. Rev. E 66, 045105 (2002).
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  15. S. Sergeyev, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3909 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

S. Sergeyev, K. O’Mahoney, S. Popov, and A. T. Friberg, Central Eur. J. Phys. 8, 159 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2004 (3)

J. F. Martinez Avila, H. L. D. de S. Cavalcante, and J. R. Rios Leite, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 144101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu. O. Barmenkov and A. V. Kir’yanov, Opt. Express 12, 3171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Voigt, M. O. Lenz, F. Mitschke, E. Roldan, and G. J. de Valcarcel, Appl. Phys. B 79, 175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

G. D. Van Wiggeren and R. Roy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097903(2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lacasta, F. Sagues, and J. M. Sancho, Phys. Rev. E 66, 045105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lægsgaard, Phys. Rev. B 65, 174114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. Sergeyev, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Van Wiggeren and R. Roy, Opt. Commun. 164, 107(1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. M. Peters and S. N. Houde-Walter, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Pikovsky and J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 775 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Williams, J. Garcıa-Ojalvo, and R. Roy, Phys. Rev. A 55, 2376 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. L. Boudec, P. L. Francois, E. Delevaque, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Avila, J. F. Martinez

J. F. Martinez Avila, H. L. D. de S. Cavalcante, and J. R. Rios Leite, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 144101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barmenkov, Yu. O.

Bayon, J. F.

P. L. Boudec, P. L. Francois, E. Delevaque, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boudec, P. L.

P. L. Boudec, P. L. Francois, E. Delevaque, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Casperson, L. W.

Chenkosol, P.

de S. Cavalcante, H. L. D.

J. F. Martinez Avila, H. L. D. de S. Cavalcante, and J. R. Rios Leite, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 144101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Valcarcel, G. J.

T. Voigt, M. O. Lenz, F. Mitschke, E. Roldan, and G. J. de Valcarcel, Appl. Phys. B 79, 175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Delevaque, E.

P. L. Boudec, P. L. Francois, E. Delevaque, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Francois, P. L.

P. L. Boudec, P. L. Francois, E. Delevaque, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Friberg, A. T.

S. Sergeyev, K. O’Mahoney, S. Popov, and A. T. Friberg, Central Eur. J. Phys. 8, 159 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Ojalvo, J.

Q. L. Williams, J. Garcıa-Ojalvo, and R. Roy, Phys. Rev. A 55, 2376 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hotoleanu, M.

S. Tammela, M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, H. Valkonen, S. Sarkilahti, and K. Janka, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, Vol. 1, 2003 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 376–377.

Houde-Walter, S. N.

P. M. Peters and S. N. Houde-Walter, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Janka, K.

S. Tammela, M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, H. Valkonen, S. Sarkilahti, and K. Janka, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, Vol. 1, 2003 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 376–377.

Khoptyar, D.

S. Sergeyev and D. Khoptyar, Proc. SPIE 6610, 66100L(2007).
[CrossRef]

Kiiveri, P.

S. Tammela, M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, H. Valkonen, S. Sarkilahti, and K. Janka, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, Vol. 1, 2003 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 376–377.

Kir’yanov, A. V.

Kurths, J.

S. Pikovsky and J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 775 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lacasta, M.

M. Lacasta, F. Sagues, and J. M. Sancho, Phys. Rev. E 66, 045105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lægsgaard, J.

J. Lægsgaard, Phys. Rev. B 65, 174114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leite, J. R. Rios

J. F. Martinez Avila, H. L. D. de S. Cavalcante, and J. R. Rios Leite, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 144101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, M. O.

T. Voigt, M. O. Lenz, F. Mitschke, E. Roldan, and G. J. de Valcarcel, Appl. Phys. B 79, 175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mitschke, F.

T. Voigt, M. O. Lenz, F. Mitschke, E. Roldan, and G. J. de Valcarcel, Appl. Phys. B 79, 175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O’Mahoney, K.

S. Sergeyev, K. O’Mahoney, S. Popov, and A. T. Friberg, Central Eur. J. Phys. 8, 159 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peters, P. M.

P. M. Peters and S. N. Houde-Walter, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pikovsky, S.

S. Pikovsky and J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 775 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Popov, S.

S. Sergeyev, K. O’Mahoney, S. Popov, and A. T. Friberg, Central Eur. J. Phys. 8, 159 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roldan, E.

T. Voigt, M. O. Lenz, F. Mitschke, E. Roldan, and G. J. de Valcarcel, Appl. Phys. B 79, 175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

G. D. Van Wiggeren and R. Roy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097903(2002).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Van Wiggeren and R. Roy, Opt. Commun. 164, 107(1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Williams, J. Garcıa-Ojalvo, and R. Roy, Phys. Rev. A 55, 2376 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sagues, F.

M. Lacasta, F. Sagues, and J. M. Sancho, Phys. Rev. E 66, 045105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, F.

P. L. Boudec, P. L. Francois, E. Delevaque, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sancho, J. M.

M. Lacasta, F. Sagues, and J. M. Sancho, Phys. Rev. E 66, 045105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sarkilahti, S.

S. Tammela, M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, H. Valkonen, S. Sarkilahti, and K. Janka, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, Vol. 1, 2003 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 376–377.

Sergeyev, S.

S. Sergeyev, K. O’Mahoney, S. Popov, and A. T. Friberg, Central Eur. J. Phys. 8, 159 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Sergeyev and D. Khoptyar, Proc. SPIE 6610, 66100L(2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Sergeyev, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stephan, G.

P. L. Boudec, P. L. Francois, E. Delevaque, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tammela, S.

S. Tammela, M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, H. Valkonen, S. Sarkilahti, and K. Janka, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, Vol. 1, 2003 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 376–377.

Valkonen, H.

S. Tammela, M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, H. Valkonen, S. Sarkilahti, and K. Janka, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, Vol. 1, 2003 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 376–377.

Van Wiggeren, G. D.

G. D. Van Wiggeren and R. Roy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097903(2002).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Van Wiggeren and R. Roy, Opt. Commun. 164, 107(1999).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, T.

T. Voigt, M. O. Lenz, F. Mitschke, E. Roldan, and G. J. de Valcarcel, Appl. Phys. B 79, 175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, Q. L.

Q. L. Williams, J. Garcıa-Ojalvo, and R. Roy, Phys. Rev. A 55, 2376 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Voigt, M. O. Lenz, F. Mitschke, E. Roldan, and G. J. de Valcarcel, Appl. Phys. B 79, 175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Central Eur. J. Phys. (1)

S. Sergeyev, K. O’Mahoney, S. Popov, and A. T. Friberg, Central Eur. J. Phys. 8, 159 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

P. M. Peters and S. N. Houde-Walter, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. D. Van Wiggeren and R. Roy, Opt. Commun. 164, 107(1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. L. Boudec, P. L. Francois, E. Delevaque, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

Q. L. Williams, J. Garcıa-Ojalvo, and R. Roy, Phys. Rev. A 55, 2376 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sergeyev, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Lægsgaard, Phys. Rev. B 65, 174114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

M. Lacasta, F. Sagues, and J. M. Sancho, Phys. Rev. E 66, 045105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. Pikovsky and J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 775 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Martinez Avila, H. L. D. de S. Cavalcante, and J. R. Rios Leite, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 144101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Van Wiggeren and R. Roy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097903(2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Sergeyev and D. Khoptyar, Proc. SPIE 6610, 66100L(2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Tammela, M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, H. Valkonen, S. Sarkilahti, and K. Janka, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, Vol. 1, 2003 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 376–377.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: FM, Faraday mirror; EDF, high-concentration erbium-doped fiber; FBG, fiber Bragg grating; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; Pump LD, pump laser diode; NG, noise generator; IPM, in-line polarimeter; PD LPF, photo detector with low-pass filter; OSC, oscilloscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluctuating polarization of the EDFL: normalized Stokes parameters on the Poincaré sphere (left) and intensity of x-polarization (solid curve) and y-polarization (dotted curve) versus time (right). Parameters: (a) pump current 250 mA , no additional noise; (b) pump current 265 mA (maximum variance of interspike intervals), no additional noise; (c) pump current 265 mA (suppression of intermittent self-pulsing), noise applied to pump current.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Self-pulsing of the EDFL intensity with 250 mA pump current (no noise added), (b) intermittent self-pulsing with 265 mA pump current (no noise added), (c) disappearance of intermittent self-pulsing with 265 mA pump current and added noise.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized variance of interspike intervals R (thick solid and dotted curves) and correlation time T c (thin solid and dotted curves) as a function of the pump current. Inset, pump power fluctuations rms versus pump current. No noise (solid curve) and additional noise (dotted curve) applied to the pump current.

Equations (2)

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R = t p 2 t p 2 / t p , T c = 0 C 2 ( τ ) d τ ,
C ( τ ) = I ( t ) I ( t + τ ) / I 2 ( t ) , I ( t ) = I L ( t ) I L ( t ) .

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