Abstract

We demonstrate a compact Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser based on graphene as a saturable absorber (SA). By optically driven deposition of graphene on a fiber core, the SA is constructed and inserted into a diode-pumped EDF laser cavity. Also benefiting from the strong third-order optical nonlinearity of graphene to suppress the mode competition of EDF, a stable dual-wavelength Q-switching operation has been achieved using a two-reflection peak fiber Bragg grating as the external cavity mirror. The Q-switched EDF laser has a low pump threshold of 6.5mW at 974nm and a wide range of pulse-repetition rate from 3.3 to 65.9kHz. The pulse duration and the pulse energy have been characterized. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of a graphene-based Q-switched laser.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010 (4)

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, Adv. Mater. 21, 3874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Tsai and Y. C. Fang, Opt. Express 17, 1429 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Huang, W. C. Huang, W. Z. Zhuang, K. W. Su, Y. F. Chen, and K. F. Huang, Opt. Lett. 34, 2360 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Opt. Express 17, 17630 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. Li, M. B. Müller, S. Gilje, R. B. Kaner, and G. G. Wallace, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1979 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Nicholson, R. S. Windeler, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Opt. Express 15, 9176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

X. Liu and C. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bae, M. K.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. L.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Opt. Express 17, 17630 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, Adv. Mater. 21, 3874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Dong, B.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y. C.

Fedosejevs, R.

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1979 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, Adv. Mater. 21, 3874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gilje, S.

D. Li, M. B. Müller, S. Gilje, R. B. Kaner, and G. G. Wallace, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hale, P. J.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Strong nonlinear optical response of graphene flakes measured by four-wave mixing,” arXiv:0912.5321 (2009).

Han, W. S.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y. G.

Hasan, T.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, Adv. Mater. 21, 3874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, E.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Strong nonlinear optical response of graphene flakes measured by four-wave mixing,” arXiv:0912.5321 (2009).

Huang, J. Y.

Huang, K. F.

Huang, W. C.

Jang, S. Y.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaner, R. B.

D. Li, M. B. Müller, S. Gilje, R. B. Kaner, and G. G. Wallace, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knize, R. J.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. B.

Li, D.

D. Li, M. B. Müller, S. Gilje, R. B. Kaner, and G. G. Wallace, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W. K.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu and C. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K. P.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Opt. Express 17, 17630 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

X. Liu and C. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, S. A.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Strong nonlinear optical response of graphene flakes measured by four-wave mixing,” arXiv:0912.5321 (2009).

Moger, J. J.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Strong nonlinear optical response of graphene flakes measured by four-wave mixing,” arXiv:0912.5321 (2009).

Müller, M. B.

D. Li, M. B. Müller, S. Gilje, R. B. Kaner, and G. G. Wallace, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ni, Z.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

Pan, L.

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1979 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Popa, D.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Privitera, G.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rozhin, A. G.

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, Adv. Mater. 21, 3874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Savchenko, A. K.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Strong nonlinear optical response of graphene flakes measured by four-wave mixing,” arXiv:0912.5321 (2009).

Shen, Z. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. W.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Su, K. W.

Sun, Z. P.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, Adv. Mater. 21, 3874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tan, P. H.

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, Adv. Mater. 21, 3874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Opt. Express 17, 17630 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Torrisi, F.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tran, T. V. A.

Tsai, T. Y.

Utkin, I.

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1979 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, G. G.

D. Li, M. B. Müller, S. Gilje, R. B. Kaner, and G. G. Wallace, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F. Q.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, Adv. Mater. 21, 3874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, L.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Yan, Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Opt. Express 17, 17630 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. M.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Opt. Express 17, 17630 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, D. P.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, W. Z.

ACS Nano (1)

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, Adv. Mater. 21, 3874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1979 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu and C. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

D. Li, M. B. Müller, S. Gilje, R. B. Kaner, and G. G. Wallace, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Strong nonlinear optical response of graphene flakes measured by four-wave mixing,” arXiv:0912.5321 (2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram for depositing graphene on the fiber end face by optical radiation. Images of the fiber end face (b) before and (c) after the graphene was deposited.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the proposed graphene-based dual-wavelength Q-switched EDFL. Inset, transmission spectrum of the FBG with two reflection peaks.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical oscilloscope traces of the Q-switched pulse trains under different pump powers: (a) 6.5, (b) 18.2, (c) 40.4, and (d) 82.8 mW .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pulse duration and pulse energy as a function of the incident pump power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical dual-wavelength lasing spectrum of the graphene Q-switched EDFL at the pump power of 40.1 mW . Inset, cw laser output spectrum without the graphene-based Q switcher in the cavity.

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