Abstract

We demonstrate on-chip hybrid integration of chalcogenide glass waveguides and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). Integration is achieved using an additive solution-casting and molding method to directly form As2S3 strip waveguides on an existing QCL chip. Integrated As2S3 strip waveguides constructed in this manner display strong optical confinement and guiding around 90° bends, with a NA of 0.24 and bend loss of 12.9dB at a 1mm radius (λ=4.8μm).

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Express 15, 9205(2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043123 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Hô, M. C. Phillips, H. Qiao, P. J. Allen, K. Krishnaswami, B. J. Riley, T. L. Myers, and N. C. Anheier, Jr., Opt. Lett. 31, 1860 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Tsay, E. Mujagić, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, Opt. Express 18, 15523 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, Opt. Express 18, 5472 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, Nature 376, 581 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. L. Jeon, I. S. Choi, B. Xu, and G. M. Whitesides, Adv. Mater. 11, 946 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. X. Xia, Q. Chen, C. Tsay, C. B. Arnold, and C. K. Madsenare preparing a manuscript to be called “Low-loss single-mode chalcogenide waveguides for mid-infrared applications.”
  18. B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Tsay, E. Mujagić, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, Opt. Express 18, 15523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, Opt. Express 18, 5472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (4)

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Express 15, 9205(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

N. Hô, M. C. Phillips, H. Qiao, P. J. Allen, K. Krishnaswami, B. J. Riley, T. L. Myers, and N. C. Anheier, Jr., Opt. Lett. 31, 1860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

N. L. Jeon, I. S. Choi, B. Xu, and G. M. Whitesides, Adv. Mater. 11, 946 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, Nature 376, 581 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 6979 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Allen, P. J.

Anheier, N. C.

Arnold, C. B.

S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, Opt. Express 18, 5472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Tsay, E. Mujagić, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, Opt. Express 18, 15523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Xia, Q. Chen, C. Tsay, C. B. Arnold, and C. K. Madsenare preparing a manuscript to be called “Low-loss single-mode chalcogenide waveguides for mid-infrared applications.”

Audet, R.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baker, N. J.

Belkin, M. A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bonhomme, E.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Broquin, J.-E.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D. A.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carlie, N.

Chapman, D.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

X. Xia, Q. Chen, C. Tsay, C. B. Arnold, and C. K. Madsenare preparing a manuscript to be called “Low-loss single-mode chalcogenide waveguides for mid-infrared applications.”

Chern, G. C.

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 6979 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. Y.

Choi, D.-Y.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, I. S.

N. L. Jeon, I. S. Choi, B. Xu, and G. M. Whitesides, Adv. Mater. 11, 946 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dirisu, A. O.

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dua, J.

Eggleton, B. J.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Express 15, 9205(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Englund, D.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Faraon, A.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.-N.

Finsterbusch, K.

Fu, L.

Gmachl, C.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C. F.

C. Tsay, E. Mujagić, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, Opt. Express 18, 15523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hô, N.

Höfler, G.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Howard, S. S.

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

Jeon, N. L.

N. L. Jeon, I. S. Choi, B. Xu, and G. M. Whitesides, Adv. Mater. 11, 946 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kern, P.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, Nature 376, 581 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

Kosterev, A. A.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krishnaswami, K.

Labadie, L.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lamont, M. R. E.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Express 15, 9205(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauks, I.

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 6979 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luan, F.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Express 15, 9205(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacArthur, J.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S.

Madden, S. J.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, C. K.

C. Tsay, E. Mujagić, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, Opt. Express 18, 15523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xia, Q. Chen, C. Tsay, C. B. Arnold, and C. K. Madsenare preparing a manuscript to be called “Low-loss single-mode chalcogenide waveguides for mid-infrared applications.”

McManus, B.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

Mujagic, E.

Myers, T. L.

Napoleone, A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

Oakley, D. C.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pelusi, M.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 3, 139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petit, L.

Petroff, P.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pflügl, C.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, M. C.

Pradel, A.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pusharsky, M.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, H.

Richardson, K.

Riley, B. J.

Sivco, D. L.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Song, S.

S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, Opt. Express 18, 5472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stoltz, N.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ta’eed, V. G.

Tittel, F. K.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, C.

C. Tsay, E. Mujagić, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, Opt. Express 18, 15523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xia, Q. Chen, C. Tsay, C. B. Arnold, and C. K. Madsenare preparing a manuscript to be called “Low-loss single-mode chalcogenide waveguides for mid-infrared applications.”

Vigreux-Bercovici, C.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vo, T. D.

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X. Xia, Q. Chen, C. Tsay, C. B. Arnold, and C. K. Madsenare preparing a manuscript to be called “Low-loss single-mode chalcogenide waveguides for mid-infrared applications.”

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

QCL and waveguide integration scheme. (a) Schematic of a bar of as-cleaved QCLs. The laser ridge is typically 15 25 μm wide and about 8 μm high. The active region is < 2 μm thick. Light is emitted from the front and back facets. The InP substrate is 210 μm thick. (b) Schematic showing hybrid integration of a curved As 2 S 3 waveguide fabricated on-chip with a mounted QCL. The waveguide dimensions are designed to be slightly larger than the laser ridge size to facilitate alignment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Waveguide integration process. (a) The QCL bar is soldered onto a Cu block, which serves as a heat sink and bottom electrical contact. Top QCL contact is made by wire bonding to an Au pad. (b) The waveguide substrate, a 190-μm-thick glass coverslip, precleaved into two pieces, is glued onto the Cu block. (c) The PDMS mold is placed on the substrate, overlapping the laser ridge slightly. (d) As 2 S 3 solution is cast into the inlet (red arrow), and the mold channel fills by capillary action. (e) Baking solidifies the structure, and the PDMS mold is removed. (f) The precleaved substrate piece is removed to produce a waveguide facet.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Integrated waveguide characterization. (a) SEM image, at 45 ° tilt, of integrated As 2 S 3 waveguide and QCL. The waveguide is 40 μm wide and 20 μm high, has a 1 mm bend radius, and is integrated with the QCL ridge at the edge of the bar. (b) SEM image, at 45 ° tilt, of the waveguide funnel-shaped end aligned to and surrounding the QCL ridge. (c) Diagram of optical measurement setup. Emitted output is collimated and focused by two ZnSe lenses ( 2 dia. f = 1.5 ) into a MCT detector with area 1 mm 2 . (d) Comparison of waveguide optical power output with laser back facet output. P out (a.u.) is normalized at the detection limit of the measurement setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Far-field intensity profile, in lateral direction, of waveguide and laser emission. NA waveguide = 0.24 , NA laser = 0.19 . (b) Waveguide bend loss. Each data point represents data from three distinct waveguides. Inset, top-view micrograph of nested As 2 S 3 waveguide array, two waveguides with r = 0.2 mm and one with r = 1 mm . Scale bar is 1 mm .

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