Abstract

Nonlinear microscopy through flexible fiber-optic catheters has potential in clinical diagnostic applications. Here, we demonstrate a new approach based on wavelength-swept narrowband pulses that permits simple fiber-optic delivery without need of the dispersion management and allows nonmechanical beam scanning. Using 0.86ps pulses rapidly tuned from 789nmto822nm at a sweep rate of 200Hz, we demonstrate two-photon fluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging through a 5-m-long standard single-mode fiber.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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K. Shi, S. Yin, and Z. Liu, J. Microsc. 223, 83 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 12, 1429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Myaing, D. J. MacDonald, and X. Li, Opt. Lett. 31, 1076 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

2003

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bird and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 28, 1552 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1990

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

Barretto, R. P. J.

Bird, D.

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

Burns, L. D.

Chan, R. C.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 12, 1429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christie, R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cocker, E. D.

de Boer, J. F.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 12, 1429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 12, 1429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimarcello, F. V.

Evans, J. A.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 12, 1429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghalmi, S.

Göbel, W.

Gu, M.

Helmchen, F.

Hyman, B. T.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N. V.

Jang, I.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 12, 1429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jasapara, J.

Jung, J. C.

Larson, A. M.

Li, X.

Liu, Z.

K. Shi, S. Yin, and Z. Liu, J. Microsc. 223, 83 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacDonald, D. J.

Monberg, E.

Myaing, M. T.

Nikitin, A. Y.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nimmerjahn, A.

Nishioka, N. S.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 12, 1429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 12, 1429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, W. M. White, N. V. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Express 13, 8214 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piyawattanametha, W.

Ra, H.

Ramachandran, S.

Schnitzer, M. J.

Shi, K.

K. Shi, S. Yin, and Z. Liu, J. Microsc. 223, 83 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 12, 1429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, W. M. White, N. V. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Express 13, 8214 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solgaard, O.

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, M. J.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 12, 1429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Vakoc, B. J.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 12, 1429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, W. M.

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wisk, P.

Yan, M. F.

Yeh, A. T.

Yelin, D.

Yin, S.

K. Shi, S. Yin, and Z. Liu, J. Microsc. 223, 83 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 12, 1429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, Opt. Lett. 30, 2660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Boudoux, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, W. M. White, N. V. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Express 13, 8214 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc.

K. Shi, S. Yin, and Z. Liu, J. Microsc. 223, 83 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 12, 1429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Diffraction-based line scan of wavelength-swept pulses. (b) Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Peak-hold spectral envelope (black) of rapidly swept pulses, and individual spectra measured with the narrowband filter fixed at specific wavelengths. (b) Temporal trace of the square root of two-photon signal (dark gray), overlaid with the intensity envelope of sweeping source (light gray). Also shown is the galvanometer position signal (black).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of two-photon fluorescence generation efficiency for various pulse widths and propagation lengths over SMF: a, 0.9 ps , 1 m fiber delivery; d, 0.9 ps , 5 m ; c, 45 fs , 1 m ; b, 45 fs , 5 m . Images show a paper tissue stained with rhodamine B.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-photon imaging by wavelength-swept picosecond pulses. a, Fluorescence image of lens tissue stained with rhodamine B. The horizontal line scan rate is 200 Hz , determined by the wavelength sweep rate. b, Mosaic image of the lens tissue. c, Second-harmonic-generation mosaic image of murine tail tendon. Scale bar, 30 μ m .

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