Abstract

Using numerical simulation, we have studied in detail vacuum electron acceleration induced by an Airy beam. The phase of the field varies slowly, and the intensity of the field is independent of the decaying parameter of the beam in the asymmetric field channel [(AFC) Opt. Express 18, 7300 (2010)] formed by the Airy beam. Results show that an electron entering into the AFC may be captured and gain high energy. Meanwhile, the decaying parameter, injection energy, and injection angle of the electron play important roles in the electron energy gain.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. D. Perry, D. Pennington, B. C. Stuart, G. Tietbohl, J. A. Britten, C. Brown, S. Herman, B. Golick, M. Kartz, J. Miller, H. T. Powell, M. Vergino, and V. Yanovsky, Opt. Lett. 24, 160 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. G. V. Stupakov and M. S. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. I. Salamin and C. H. Kertel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 095005(2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. X. Li, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Hafizi, E. Esarey, and P. Sprangle, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3539(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Liu, H. Guo, H. Tang, and M. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 324, 104(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Li and K. Imasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Baumgartl, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Photon. 2, 675 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. X. Li, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, Opt. Express 18, 7300 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. X. Li, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Li, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, Opt. Express 18, 7300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. Baumgartl, G. M. Hannappel, D. J. Stevenson, D. Day, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, Lab Chip 9, 1334 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. Baumgartl, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Photon. 2, 675 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

G. A. Siviloglou and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 32, 979 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. Li and K. Imasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Liu, H. Guo, H. Tang, and M. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 324, 104(2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

Y. I. Salamin and C. H. Kertel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 095005(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Science 297, 1144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

P. G. O’Shea and H. P. Freund, Science 292, 1853 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. V. Stupakov and M. S. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1997

B. Hafizi, E. Esarey, and P. Sprangle, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3539(1997).
[CrossRef]

Baumgartl, J.

J. Baumgartl, G. M. Hannappel, D. J. Stevenson, D. Day, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, Lab Chip 9, 1334 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Baumgartl, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Photon. 2, 675 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Britten, J. A.

Broky, J.

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C.

Cheng, Y.

Y. Cheng and Z. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

G. A. Siviloglou and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 32, 979 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Day, D.

J. Baumgartl, G. M. Hannappel, D. J. Stevenson, D. Day, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, Lab Chip 9, 1334 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

J. Baumgartl, G. M. Hannappel, D. J. Stevenson, D. Day, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, Lab Chip 9, 1334 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Baumgartl, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Photon. 2, 675 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Science 297, 1144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esarey, E.

B. Hafizi, E. Esarey, and P. Sprangle, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3539(1997).
[CrossRef]

Freund, H. P.

P. G. O’Shea and H. P. Freund, Science 292, 1853 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golick, B.

Gu, M.

J. Baumgartl, G. M. Hannappel, D. J. Stevenson, D. Day, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, Lab Chip 9, 1334 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, H.

S. Liu, H. Guo, H. Tang, and M. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 324, 104(2004).
[CrossRef]

Hafizi, B.

B. Hafizi, E. Esarey, and P. Sprangle, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3539(1997).
[CrossRef]

Hannappel, G. M.

J. Baumgartl, G. M. Hannappel, D. J. Stevenson, D. Day, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, Lab Chip 9, 1334 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Science 297, 1144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Science 297, 1144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herman, S.

Imasaki, K.

D. Li and K. Imasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kartz, M.

Kertel, C. H.

Y. I. Salamin and C. H. Kertel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 095005(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Science 297, 1144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitzler, M.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Science 297, 1144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Science 297, 1144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Science 297, 1144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, D.

D. Li and K. Imasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. X.

J. X. Li, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, Opt. Express 18, 7300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Li, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

S. Liu, H. Guo, H. Tang, and M. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 324, 104(2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

S. Liu, H. Guo, H. Tang, and M. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 324, 104(2004).
[CrossRef]

Mazilu, M.

J. Baumgartl, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Photon. 2, 675 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J.

O’Shea, P. G.

P. G. O’Shea and H. P. Freund, Science 292, 1853 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pennington, D.

Perry, M. D.

Powell, H. T.

Salamin, Y. I.

Y. I. Salamin and C. H. Kertel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 095005(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Science 297, 1144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siviloglou, G. A.

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Siviloglou and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 32, 979 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, Ch.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Science 297, 1144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sprangle, P.

B. Hafizi, E. Esarey, and P. Sprangle, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3539(1997).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, D. J.

J. Baumgartl, G. M. Hannappel, D. J. Stevenson, D. Day, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, Lab Chip 9, 1334 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stuart, B. C.

Stupakov, G. V.

G. V. Stupakov and M. S. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, H.

S. Liu, H. Guo, H. Tang, and M. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 324, 104(2004).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J. G.

J. X. Li, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, Opt. Express 18, 7300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Li, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tietbohl, G.

Uiberacker, M.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Science 297, 1144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vergino, M.

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Science 297, 1144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieland, M.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Science 297, 1144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

Y. Cheng and Z. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yanovsky, V.

Zang, W. P.

J. X. Li, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Li, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, Opt. Express 18, 7300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zolotorev, M. S.

G. V. Stupakov and M. S. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Cheng and Z. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Li, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Li and K. Imasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip

J. Baumgartl, G. M. Hannappel, D. J. Stevenson, D. Day, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, Lab Chip 9, 1334 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon.

J. Baumgartl, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Photon. 2, 675 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Lett. A

S. Liu, H. Guo, H. Tang, and M. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 324, 104(2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

B. Hafizi, E. Esarey, and P. Sprangle, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3539(1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Stupakov and M. S. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. I. Salamin and C. H. Kertel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 095005(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

P. G. O’Shea and H. P. Freund, Science 292, 1853 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Science 297, 1144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a)–(c) Propagation dynamics of real component and imaginary component of f x and the real component of E x , respectively. (d)–(f) Cross section of E x at 10 z r , 30 z r , and 50 z r , respectively. Parameters used here are t = 0 , λ = 1 μm , x 0 = 5 λ , a = 0.05 , and φ 0 = 0 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a), (b) Phases of f x and E x .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)–(d) Cross sections of E x at z r , 10 z r , 20 z r , and 40 z r , respectively. The black, light gray (red online), and dark gray (blue online) curves are calculated with a = 0.01 , 0.05, and 0.1, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Trajectory and (b) energy gain. (c)–(h) E x , E z , phases of E x and E z , and the works done by E x and E z , sensed by the electron along its trajectory, respectively. Parameters used here are a = 0.05 , λ = 1 μm , x 0 = 5 λ , q = 20 , and φ 0 = 0 , initial location of the electron ( x , z ) = ( 0.1 x 0 , 0 ) , injection angle of the electron θ = 0 , and black and light gray (red online) curves are calculated with the initial injection energy of γ 0 = 40 and 16, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)–(c) Variation of the energy gain with a, γ 0 , and θ. The black, light gray (red online), and dark gray (blue online) curves represent the energy gains and the total work done by E x and E z , respectively. (a) γ 0 = 30 and θ = 0 , (b) a = 0.05 and θ = 0 , and (c) γ 0 = 30 and a = 0.05 .

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E x = i E { ( 2 a 2 + 2 i a ξ ξ 2 / 4 + 2 s + 2 k 2 x 0 2 ) A i ( A ) + ( 4 a + i ξ ) A i ( A ) } / ( 2 k 2 x 0 2 ) ,
E z = E { [ 2 a 3 + 9 i a 2 ξ / 2 + a ( 3 ξ 2 / 2 + 6 s 4 k 2 x 0 2 ) i ( 2 i + ξ 3 / 8 3 s ξ / 2 + ξ k 2 x 0 2 ) ] A i ( A ) + ( 6 a 2 + 4 i a ξ + 2 s ξ 2 / 2 4 k 2 x 0 2 ) A i ( A ) } / ( 4 k 3 x 0 3 ) ,
B y = i E { ( 2 a 2 + 2 i a ξ ξ 2 / 4 + 2 s 4 k 2 x 0 2 ) A i ( A ) + ( 4 a + i ξ ) A i ( A ) } / ( 4 k 2 x 0 2 ) ,

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