Abstract

The sweat ducts of the human perspiration system are helically shaped tubes, filled with a conductive aqueous solution. Recent studies have claimed that these ducts act as an array of low-Q helical antennae and are dominant in shaping the spectral response in the subterahertz region. Using local homogenization theory for the skin embedded with sweat ducts, we found that multiple interference effects from the skin layers play the major role in determining the skin electromagnetic characteristics in the millimeter and terahertz regions without the need for the assumption of the sweat ducts acting as low-Q helical antennae.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (3)

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 3341 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. Mackay and A. Lakhtakia, Opt. Commun. 282, 2470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Cimalla, J. Walther, M. Mehner, M. Cuevas, and E. Koch, Opt. Express 17, 19486 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and Aharon J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 128102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Binzoni, A. Vogel, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and R. Marchesini, Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

G. C. Walker, E. Berry, S. W. Smye, N. N. Zinov’ev, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, Proc. SPIE 5030, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. H. Sherwin, A. Lakhtakia, and I. Hodgkinson, Opt. Commun. 209, 369 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Woodward, B. Cole, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. Knuttel and M. Boehlau-Godau, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

I. Abdulhalim, J. Opt. A 1, 646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

P. D. Sunal, A. Lakhtakia, and R. Messier, Opt. Commun. 158, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Abdulhalim, Opt. Commun. 157, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. Lakhtakia, B. Michel, and W. S. Weiglhofer, J. Phys. D 30, 230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia, B. Michel, and W. S. Weiglhofer, Compos. Sci. Technol. 57, 185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. S. Gabriel, R. W. Lau, and C. Gabriel, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2271 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

I. Abdulhalim, L. Benguigui, and R. Weil, J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 815 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

T. R. Wells and B. H. Landing, J. Invest. Dermatol. 51, 177 (1968).
[PubMed]

Abdulhalim, I.

I. Abdulhalim, J. Opt. A 1, 646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Abdulhalim, Opt. Commun. 157, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Abdulhalim, L. Benguigui, and R. Weil, J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 815 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Agranat, A. J.

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 3341 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agranat, Aharon J.

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and Aharon J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 128102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnone, D. D.

R. H. Woodward, B. Cole, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, F. S.

F. S. Barnes and B. Greenebaum, Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields—Bioengineering and Biophysical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields, 3rd ed. (CRC Press, 2007).
[PubMed]

Ben Ishai, P.

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 3341 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and Aharon J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 128102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benguigui, L.

I. Abdulhalim, L. Benguigui, and R. Weil, J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 815 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Berry, E.

G. C. Walker, E. Berry, S. W. Smye, N. N. Zinov’ev, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, Proc. SPIE 5030, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Binzoni, T.

T. Binzoni, A. Vogel, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and R. Marchesini, Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boehlau-Godau, M.

A. Knuttel and M. Boehlau-Godau, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caduff, A.

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 3341 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and Aharon J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 128102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carneiro, J.

L. C. Junqueira and J. Carneiro, Basic Histology (McGraw-Hill, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlain, J. M.

G. C. Walker, E. Berry, S. W. Smye, N. N. Zinov’ev, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, Proc. SPIE 5030, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cimalla, P.

Cole, B.

R. H. Woodward, B. Cole, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuevas, M.

Davidovich, I.

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 3341 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldman, Y.

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 3341 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and Aharon J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 128102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

G. C. Walker, E. Berry, S. W. Smye, N. N. Zinov’ev, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, Proc. SPIE 5030, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gabriel, C.

P. S. Gabriel, R. W. Lau, and C. Gabriel, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2271 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabriel, P. S.

P. S. Gabriel, R. W. Lau, and C. Gabriel, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2271 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gandjbakhche, A. H.

T. Binzoni, A. Vogel, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and R. Marchesini, Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenebaum, B.

F. S. Barnes and B. Greenebaum, Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields—Bioengineering and Biophysical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields, 3rd ed. (CRC Press, 2007).
[PubMed]

Hodgkinson, I.

J. H. Sherwin, A. Lakhtakia, and I. Hodgkinson, Opt. Commun. 209, 369 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

Junqueira, L. C.

L. C. Junqueira and J. Carneiro, Basic Histology (McGraw-Hill, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Knuttel, A.

A. Knuttel and M. Boehlau-Godau, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, E.

Lakhtakia, A.

T. G. Mackay and A. Lakhtakia, Opt. Commun. 282, 2470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Sherwin, A. Lakhtakia, and I. Hodgkinson, Opt. Commun. 209, 369 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Sunal, A. Lakhtakia, and R. Messier, Opt. Commun. 158, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia, B. Michel, and W. S. Weiglhofer, J. Phys. D 30, 230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia, B. Michel, and W. S. Weiglhofer, Compos. Sci. Technol. 57, 185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Landing, B. H.

T. R. Wells and B. H. Landing, J. Invest. Dermatol. 51, 177 (1968).
[PubMed]

Lau, R. W.

P. S. Gabriel, R. W. Lau, and C. Gabriel, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2271 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linfield, E. H.

R. H. Woodward, B. Cole, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackay, T. G.

T. G. Mackay and A. Lakhtakia, Opt. Commun. 282, 2470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marchesini, R.

T. Binzoni, A. Vogel, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and R. Marchesini, Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehner, M.

Messier, R.

P. D. Sunal, A. Lakhtakia, and R. Messier, Opt. Commun. 158, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michel, B.

A. Lakhtakia, B. Michel, and W. S. Weiglhofer, J. Phys. D 30, 230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia, B. Michel, and W. S. Weiglhofer, Compos. Sci. Technol. 57, 185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. E.

G. C. Walker, E. Berry, S. W. Smye, N. N. Zinov’ev, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, Proc. SPIE 5030, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, M.

R. H. Woodward, B. Cole, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

Puzenko, A.

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 3341 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and Aharon J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 128102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

Sakran, F.

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 3341 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherwin, J. H.

J. H. Sherwin, A. Lakhtakia, and I. Hodgkinson, Opt. Commun. 209, 369 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A.

G. C. Walker, E. Berry, S. W. Smye, N. N. Zinov’ev, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, Proc. SPIE 5030, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smye, S. W.

G. C. Walker, E. Berry, S. W. Smye, N. N. Zinov’ev, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, Proc. SPIE 5030, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sunal, P. D.

P. D. Sunal, A. Lakhtakia, and R. Messier, Opt. Commun. 158, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takashima, S.

S. Takashima, Electrical Properties of Biopolymers and Membranes (Institute of Physics, 1989).

Vogel, A.

T. Binzoni, A. Vogel, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and R. Marchesini, Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, G. C.

G. C. Walker, E. Berry, S. W. Smye, N. N. Zinov’ev, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, Proc. SPIE 5030, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, V. P.

R. H. Woodward, B. Cole, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, J.

Weiglhofer, W. S.

A. Lakhtakia, B. Michel, and W. S. Weiglhofer, J. Phys. D 30, 230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia, B. Michel, and W. S. Weiglhofer, Compos. Sci. Technol. 57, 185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weil, R.

I. Abdulhalim, L. Benguigui, and R. Weil, J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 815 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wells, T. R.

T. R. Wells and B. H. Landing, J. Invest. Dermatol. 51, 177 (1968).
[PubMed]

Woodward, R. H.

R. H. Woodward, B. Cole, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zinov’ev, N. N.

G. C. Walker, E. Berry, S. W. Smye, N. N. Zinov’ev, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, Proc. SPIE 5030, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Compos. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Lakhtakia, B. Michel, and W. S. Weiglhofer, Compos. Sci. Technol. 57, 185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. Knuttel and M. Boehlau-Godau, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

T. R. Wells and B. H. Landing, J. Invest. Dermatol. 51, 177 (1968).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. A (1)

I. Abdulhalim, J. Opt. A 1, 646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (Paris) (1)

I. Abdulhalim, L. Benguigui, and R. Weil, J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 815 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

A. Lakhtakia, B. Michel, and W. S. Weiglhofer, J. Phys. D 30, 230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

P. D. Sunal, A. Lakhtakia, and R. Messier, Opt. Commun. 158, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Sherwin, A. Lakhtakia, and I. Hodgkinson, Opt. Commun. 209, 369 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Mackay and A. Lakhtakia, Opt. Commun. 282, 2470 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Abdulhalim, Opt. Commun. 157, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

P. S. Gabriel, R. W. Lau, and C. Gabriel, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2271 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Woodward, B. Cole, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 3341 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Binzoni, A. Vogel, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and R. Marchesini, Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and Aharon J. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 128102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. C. Walker, E. Berry, S. W. Smye, N. N. Zinov’ev, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, Proc. SPIE 5030, 647 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

L. C. Junqueira and J. Carneiro, Basic Histology (McGraw-Hill, 2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Takashima, Electrical Properties of Biopolymers and Membranes (Institute of Physics, 1989).

F. S. Barnes and B. Greenebaum, Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields—Bioengineering and Biophysical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields, 3rd ed. (CRC Press, 2007).
[PubMed]

http://www.zunis.org/Sweat_perspiration_and_glow.htm.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Illustration of the helical sweat duct treated as if being composed of small sequential cylinders showing also the typical size of the helix. The inset with the x y z coordinate system shows the orientation of the first cylindrical slice. (b) Three-layer skin model embedded with sweat ducts in the epidermis (left) and epidermis equivalent homogenized multilayer model, each layer having a different anisotropic dielectric tensor due to the different orientation of its corresponding cylinder (right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflection coefficient of p-polarized electromagnetic (EM) wave: R pp , drawn versus EM wave frequency for (a) lossless skin model with no sweat ducts and (b) a skin model with increasing conductivity of each layer and no sweat ducts. The percentage values represent the values of the conductivity in parts of σ listed in Table 1 for each of the layers. (c) Skin model embedded with sweat ducts in the epidermis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflection coefficient of p-polarized EM wave: R pp , drawn versus EM wave frequency at different SC thicknesses for (a) a skin sample without sweat ducts and (b) a skin sample with sweat ducts. The uniform spectral shift due to different SC thicknesses is clearly visible both in (a) as expected, but also in (b), thus implying that interference is the dominant effect in shaping the spectral response and not the electrical activity of the sweat ducts.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Skin Layer Model Parameters: Permittivity, ac Conductivity, and Thickness

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