Abstract

We report on the real-space observation of resonant frequency splitting in a high-Q waveguide-coupled silicon-on-insulator microdisk resonator. Phase sensitive near-field analysis reveals the stationary nature of the two resonant states, and spectral investigations clearly show their orthogonality. These measurements emphasize the role of the coupling waveguide in this splitting phenomenon. The symmetry of the two stationary whispering gallery modes is clearly observed and is found to follow the axial symmetry of the waveguide-coupled microdisk as it has been reported by earlier theoretical predictions.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

L. Deych and J. Rubin, Phys. Rev. A 80, 061805 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, X. Sun, A. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1032 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de S. Menezes, G. Zomofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. Čtyroký, I. Richter, and M. Šiňor, Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 781 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Borselli, K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3693 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Boergarts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Baba and D. Sano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and J. Brault, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, U. Mohideen, S. L. McCall, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Astratov, V. N.

Aubert, S.

Baba, T.

T. Baba and D. Sano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

Baets, R.

P. Dumon, W. Boergarts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barclay, P. E.

M. Borselli, K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3693 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, W. Boergarts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Benson, O.

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de S. Menezes, G. Zomofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

P. Dumon, W. Boergarts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blaize, S.

Boergarts, W.

P. Dumon, W. Boergarts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Borselli, M.

M. Borselli, K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3693 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brault, J.

C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and J. Brault, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bruyant, A.

Chen, D.-R.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

Ctyroký, J.

J. Čtyroký, I. Richter, and M. Šiňor, Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 781 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de S. Menezes, L.

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de S. Menezes, G. Zomofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deych, L.

L. Deych and J. Rubin, Phys. Rev. A 80, 061805 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

P. Dumon, W. Boergarts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, S.

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de S. Menezes, G. Zomofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hare, J.

Haroche, S.

He, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hiremath, K. R.

Hu, J.

Kalkman, J.

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J.-P.

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

Lérondel, G.

Letartre, X.

C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and J. Brault, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, U. Mohideen, S. L. McCall, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Little, B. E.

Logan, R. A.

R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, U. Mohideen, S. L. McCall, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Luyssaert, B.

P. Dumon, W. Boergarts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mazzei, A.

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de S. Menezes, G. Zomofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCall, S. L.

R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, U. Mohideen, S. L. McCall, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mohideen, U.

R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, U. Mohideen, S. L. McCall, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ozdemir, S. K.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

M. Borselli, K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3693 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, U. Mohideen, S. L. McCall, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raimond, J.-M.

Richter, I.

J. Čtyroký, I. Richter, and M. Šiňor, Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 781 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Royer, P.

Rubin, J.

L. Deych and J. Rubin, Phys. Rev. A 80, 061805 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de S. Menezes, G. Zomofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Weiss, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Lett. 20, 1835 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sano, D.

T. Baba and D. Sano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seassal, C.

C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and J. Brault, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Šinor, M.

J. Čtyroký, I. Richter, and M. Šiňor, Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 781 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, U. Mohideen, S. L. McCall, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, K.

M. Borselli, K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3693 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stefanon, I.

Sun, X.

Taillaert, D.

P. Dumon, W. Boergarts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tchebotareva, A. L.

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

P. Dumon, W. Boergarts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Thourhout, D.

P. Dumon, W. Boergarts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, D. S.

Wiaux, V.

P. Dumon, W. Boergarts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, W. Boergarts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y.-F.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zomofen, G.

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de S. Menezes, G. Zomofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, U. Mohideen, S. L. McCall, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Borselli, K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3693 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Baba and D. Sano, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Dumon, W. Boergarts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and J. Brault, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, Nat. Photon. 4, 46 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Čtyroký, I. Richter, and M. Šiňor, Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 781 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Deych and J. Rubin, Phys. Rev. A 80, 061805 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de S. Menezes, G. Zomofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Geometry and refractive index profile of the microdisk filter. (b) Transmission spectrum showing the formation of a spectral doublet in place of a single resonance peak.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scattering-SNOM raw data. (a) AFM topography with a pixel sampling period of 30 nm , (b) optical amplitude image showing a stationary mode with azimuthal number m = 29 , (c) optical phase image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In situ observation of microdisk dual resonance. (a) AFM topography. (b) Spectral s-SNOM cartography (wavelength variation) along a segment tangent to the circumference. (c), (d) Scattering-SNOM 2D mappings (optical amplitude) of, respectively, the resonant antisymmetrical WGM [at λ 1 = 1579.92 nm in (b)] and the resonant symmetrical WGM [at λ 2 = 1.579.98 nm in (b)]. Scattering-SNOM micrographs have been numerically mixed with corresponding AFM topographies for a better visualization of the mode localization.

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