Abstract

We present, for the first time to our knowledge, a dual strain/temperature sapphire fiber Bragg grating sensor. Temperature and strain coefficients of the grating are evaluated. By recording the blackbody radiation level above 650°C, wavelength shifts due to temperature can be decoupled from those due to strain.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and H. Ding, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2505 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Busch, W. Ecke, I. Latka, D. Fischer, R. Willsch, and H. Bartelt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 115301 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, F. Bilodeau, and C. W. Smelser, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 980 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. R. Dils, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 1198 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. W. Zemansky and R. H. Dittman, Heat and Thermodynamics, 6th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1981), Chap. 17.
  7. W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, in Handbook of Optics, M.Bass, ed., 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 2, Chap. 33.
  8. M. Liu and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2693 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. C. Jones, B. A. M. Vaughan, and Y. M. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4990 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Busch, W. Ecke, I. Latka, D. Fischer, R. Willsch, and H. Bartelt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 115301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, F. Bilodeau, and C. W. Smelser, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and H. Ding, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Liu and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2693 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Jones, B. A. M. Vaughan, and Y. M. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4990 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. R. Dils, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 1198 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bartelt, H.

M. Busch, W. Ecke, I. Latka, D. Fischer, R. Willsch, and H. Bartelt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 115301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, F. Bilodeau, and C. W. Smelser, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Busch, M.

M. Busch, W. Ecke, I. Latka, D. Fischer, R. Willsch, and H. Bartelt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 115301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dils, R. R.

R. R. Dils, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 1198 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ding, H.

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, F. Bilodeau, and C. W. Smelser, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and H. Ding, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dittman, R. H.

M. W. Zemansky and R. H. Dittman, Heat and Thermodynamics, 6th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1981), Chap. 17.

Ecke, W.

M. Busch, W. Ecke, I. Latka, D. Fischer, R. Willsch, and H. Bartelt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 115301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, D.

M. Busch, W. Ecke, I. Latka, D. Fischer, R. Willsch, and H. Bartelt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 115301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grobnic, D.

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, F. Bilodeau, and C. W. Smelser, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and H. Ding, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, Y. M.

S. C. Jones, B. A. M. Vaughan, and Y. M. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4990 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. J.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, in Handbook of Optics, M.Bass, ed., 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 2, Chap. 33.

Jones, S. C.

S. C. Jones, B. A. M. Vaughan, and Y. M. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4990 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

M. Liu and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2693 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Latka, I.

M. Busch, W. Ecke, I. Latka, D. Fischer, R. Willsch, and H. Bartelt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 115301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

M. Liu and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2693 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, F. Bilodeau, and C. W. Smelser, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and H. Ding, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smelser, C. W.

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, F. Bilodeau, and C. W. Smelser, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and H. Ding, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M. E.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, in Handbook of Optics, M.Bass, ed., 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 2, Chap. 33.

Tropf, W. J.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, in Handbook of Optics, M.Bass, ed., 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 2, Chap. 33.

Vaughan, B. A. M.

S. C. Jones, B. A. M. Vaughan, and Y. M. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4990 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Willsch, R.

M. Busch, W. Ecke, I. Latka, D. Fischer, R. Willsch, and H. Bartelt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 115301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zemansky, M. W.

M. W. Zemansky and R. H. Dittman, Heat and Thermodynamics, 6th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1981), Chap. 17.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Liu and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2693 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, and H. Ding, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. C. Jones, B. A. M. Vaughan, and Y. M. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4990 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Dils, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 1198 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

M. Busch, W. Ecke, I. Latka, D. Fischer, R. Willsch, and H. Bartelt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 115301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, F. Bilodeau, and C. W. Smelser, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 980 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. W. Zemansky and R. H. Dittman, Heat and Thermodynamics, 6th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1981), Chap. 17.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, in Handbook of Optics, M.Bass, ed., 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 2, Chap. 33.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of setups used to obtain (a) multimode and (b) single-mode wavelength shifts with temperature and strain.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Multimode SFBG reflection spectrum at 22 °C without strain, (b) variation in the SFBG spectrum as a function of applied weight at 22 °C (black squares, no strain; white squares, 100 g ; black circles, 200 g ; white circles, 280 g ; black triangles, 380 g ; and white triangles, 450 g ), and (c) wavelength shift as a function of strain as measured using a multimode coupler.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of the SFBG single-mode reflection spectrum as a function of applied weight at 22 °C . Solid black, dotted black, solid dark gray, dotted dark gray, and light gray curves correspond to applied masses of 0 g , 50 g , 100 g , 170 g , and 200 g , respectively. Inset figure is the full reflection spectrum without strain.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Δ λ Br as a function of applied strain at (a) 22 °C , (b) 1078 °C , and (c) 1288 °C .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Increase in blackbody radiation signal background as a function of temperature (black squares, 640 °C ; white squares, 850 °C ; black circles, 965 °C ; white circles, 1080 °C ; black triangles, 1220 °C ; and white triangles, 1290 °C ) as compared in (b) to the theoretical blackbody radiation emittance from Eq. (1) (solid curve).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

u λ = 2 π h c 2 λ 5 ( exp ( h c / λ k T ) 1 ) ,
Δ λ Br λ Br = ε a x n 2 2 [ ε r ( P 11 + P 12 ) + P 12 ε a x ] + ( α s + ζ s ) Δ T ,
Δ λ Br λ Br = ( 1 p e ) ε a x + ( α s + ζ s ) Δ T ,

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