Abstract

We report on the realization of a 2D refractive structure consisting of a polymer-liquid-crystal polymer slice grid. Nematic liquid crystal microdomains are confined inside well-sculptured elliptical cavities; experimental investigation shows that the liquid crystal director lies in the plane of the structure and its orientation follows a preferred direction. The sample exhibits both an electro-optical and an all-optical response owing to a small percentage of photosensitive azo dye included in the structure. A double external control of the two-dimensional grating efficiency can indeed be operated either by an optical pump beam or by the standard technique of applying a suitable external voltage to the sample.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals (Springer, 2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Maune, M. LonŁar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, and K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. H. Moon, J. Ford, and S. Yang, Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 83 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. J. Escuti and G. P. Crawford, Opt. Eng. 43, 1973 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri, and C. P. Umeton, Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Veltri, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, and C. Umeton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3492 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Caputo, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1939 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, Opt. Lett. 29, 1405 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, S. Serak, and N. Tabirian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181115 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. De Sio, J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131112 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. De Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, “Universal light sculptured soft template for photonic applications: from electrical to all-optical reconfigurability,” submitted to Nat. Photon. .
  18. M. J. Escuti, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, Opt. Lett. 28, 522 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, Chem. Mater. 10, 1402 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Adv. Mater. 22, 2316 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

L. De Sio, J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Adv. Mater. 22, 2316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, S. Serak, and N. Tabirian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. H. Moon, J. Ford, and S. Yang, Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (6)

M. J. Escuti and G. P. Crawford, Opt. Eng. 43, 1973 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Maune, M. LonŁar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri, and C. P. Umeton, Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Veltri, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, and C. Umeton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1939 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, Opt. Lett. 29, 1405 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. B. Chrisey, Science 289, 879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, Chem. Mater. 10, 1402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, and K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asquini, R.

Baehr-Jones, T.

B. Maune, M. LonŁar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bartolino, R.

L. De Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, “Universal light sculptured soft template for photonic applications: from electrical to all-optical reconfigurability,” submitted to Nat. Photon. .

Bunning, T. J.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Caputo, R.

Chrisey, D. B.

D. B. Chrisey, Science 289, 879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

Cuennet, J. G.

L. De Sio, J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

d’Alessandro, A.

De Sio, L.

L. De Sio, J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Adv. Mater. 22, 2316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, S. Serak, and N. Tabirian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri, and C. P. Umeton, Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. De Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, “Universal light sculptured soft template for photonic applications: from electrical to all-optical reconfigurability,” submitted to Nat. Photon. .

Escuti, M. J.

Ferjani, S.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Adv. Mater. 22, 2316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. De Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, “Universal light sculptured soft template for photonic applications: from electrical to all-optical reconfigurability,” submitted to Nat. Photon. .

Ford, J.

J. H. Moon, J. Ford, and S. Yang, Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gizzi, C.

Gmitter, T. J.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, and K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hochberg, M.

B. Maune, M. LonŁar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

H. K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, Chem. Mater. 10, 1402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanazawa, A.

H. K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, Chem. Mater. 10, 1402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karapinar, R.

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. K.

H. K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, Chem. Mater. 10, 1402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leung, K. M.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, and K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LonLar, M.

B. Maune, M. LonŁar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lucchetta, D. E.

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Manni, A.

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maune, B.

B. Maune, M. LonŁar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. H.

J. H. Moon, J. Ford, and S. Yang, Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

L. De Sio, J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Maune, M. LonŁar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qi, J.

Qiu, Y.

B. Maune, M. LonŁar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sakoda, K.

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals (Springer, 2001).

Scherer, A.

B. Maune, M. LonŁar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Adv. Mater. 22, 2316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, S. Serak, and N. Tabirian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shiono, T.

H. K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, Chem. Mater. 10, 1402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strangi, G.

L. De Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, “Universal light sculptured soft template for photonic applications: from electrical to all-optical reconfigurability,” submitted to Nat. Photon. .

Sukhov, A. V.

Sutherland, R. L.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tabirian, N.

L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, S. Serak, and N. Tabirian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Adv. Mater. 22, 2316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlin, D.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Adv. Mater. 22, 2316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, S. Serak, and N. Tabirian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, Opt. Lett. 29, 1405 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Caputo, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1939 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Veltri, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, and C. Umeton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, “Universal light sculptured soft template for photonic applications: from electrical to all-optical reconfigurability,” submitted to Nat. Photon. .

Umeton, C. P.

Vasdekis, A. E.

L. De Sio, J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Veltri, A.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Adv. Mater. 22, 2316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, S. Serak, and N. Tabirian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1939 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, C. Gizzi, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and A. Veltri, Opt. Lett. 29, 1405 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Veltri, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, and C. Umeton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri, and C. P. Umeton, Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witzens, J.

B. Maune, M. LonŁar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, and K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

J. H. Moon, J. Ford, and S. Yang, Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Adv. Mater. 22, 2316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Veltri, R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, and C. Umeton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, S. Serak, and N. Tabirian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, J. G. Cuennet, A. E. Vasdekis, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Maune, M. LonŁar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

H. K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, Chem. Mater. 10, 1402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 6060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photon. (1)

L. De Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, “Universal light sculptured soft template for photonic applications: from electrical to all-optical reconfigurability,” submitted to Nat. Photon. .

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. J. Escuti and G. P. Crawford, Opt. Eng. 43, 1973 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, and K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polym. Adv. Technol. (1)

J. H. Moon, J. Ford, and S. Yang, Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. B. Chrisey, Science 289, 879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals (Springer, 2001).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical micrograph of a 2D polymer grid and (b) NLC microdomains confined in cavities. (c) High-resolution image of the zone circled in (b); (d) sketch of the NLC director configuration hypothesized inside the cavities.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Behavior of the normalized diffracted intensities (a) I 01 and (c) I 10 of a 2D POLICRYPS grid as a function of the angle between the electric field of the probe beam and the major axis of the elliptical cavities. (b) Far-field view of the 2D diffraction pattern obtained with a green probe laser; the Miller indices notation is reported in the same figure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electro-optical behavior of (a) I 10 and (b) I 01 when the sample is acted on by a square-wave electric field alternating between 0 and 8.9 V / μm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

All-optical control of I 10 and I 01 obtained by switching OFF and ON a pump laser light impinging on the sample.

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